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Practical guide. Fruits
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Let's know something more on the fruits
Introduction Introduction
Classification Classification
Nourishing properties
Maturation of the fruits Maturation of the fruits
Why do the fruits deteriorate Why do the fruits deteriorate
Quality criteria in the buy, conservation and storage Quality criteria in the buy, conservation and storage
Practical advices at home Practical advices at home
Importance of the consumption of futas for the health Importance of the consumption of fruits for the health
Let's know something more on the fruits
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The composition of the fruits differs to a great extent according to the type of fruit and of his grade of maturation. The water is the majority component in all the cases. It constitutes, in general, more than 80 % of the weight of the eatable portion, ranging between 82 % in the grapes, 90 % in the strawberries and up to 93 % in the watermelon.

Energy value

The calories of the fruit depend almost exclusively on his carbohydrates content, with the exception of the case of the avocado and of the coconut, fruits in which the greasy content determines his energy value.

Carbohydrates: the sugar or simple carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, saccharose...) award the sweet flavor to the mature fruits and suppose 5-18 % of the weight of the eatable portion. The apples and the pears are rich in fructose. In the fruits others are also pretty and disacáridos like the xilosa, the arabinosa, the clever one and the maltosa. The plums and the pears contain relatively high quantities of sorbitol, a substance become related to the sugar, which possesses a well-known laxative effect. In minor they present complex carbohydrates (starch). The fruits you do not mature they possess between 0,5-2 % of starch, but the same way as they are maturing this percentage it diminishes even almost to disappear, except in the mature bananas, in which the starch can overcome 3 % of his entire weight.

Fats: his content is almost invaluable (0,1-0,5 %), except in the avocado, which 14 % of fat contributes, especially acid oleico, healthy (72 % of the whole of fat) and in the coconut, with 35 % of fat, for the most part saturated (88,6 % of the whole of fat), less healthy.

Plastic value

It is given according to his content in proteins, which usually represents less than 1 % of the fresh weight of the fruits. The proteins are composed by amino acids, ten of which (leucina, isoleucina, valina, treonina, triptófano, metionia, lisina, fenilalanina, histidina and arginina) are essential for the human being. The essential term alludes to which the organism cannot produce them for himself and, therefore, must obtain them necessary of the daily feeding. A protein that it should contain, in quantity and quality, ten essential amino acids is considered to be finished or of high biological value. In the fruits, the proteins are of low biological value. In the citrus fruits and strawberries there abound simple nitrogenous substances as the asparagina and the glutamina and the acids aspártico and glutámico. In the apples and the pears the asparagina abounds and the oranges are rich in prolina.

Regulatory value

The fruits are a good source of vitamins and minerals.

Vitamins: he emphasizes the vitamin content C (in citrus fruits, tropical fruits, melon, strawberries and black redcurrants) and of provitamina A (in apricots, cherries, melon and peach...), both of antirust action. In minor proportion, other vitamins of the group are B soluble in water, biotub and acid pantoténico (apricots, citrus fruits, figs...). In general, there are richer in vitamins the colored varieties, those of summer and the fruits exposed to the sun. As curiosity: inside the same tree, the fruits faced on the south are richer in vitamins that the faced ones to the north; those of the summit richer than those of the skirts and the location. richer than the interiors.

Minerals: in the fruits there abounds the potassium (necessary for the transmission of the nervous impulse and for the normal muscular activity, he contributes to the water balance inside and out of the cell). There are rich in potassium the banana, kiwi, nectarine, medlars, melon, black grape, cherries, apricots, plums, fresh coconut, avocado, pineapple, custard apples and papaya. Also they contribute magnesium (related to the functioning of the intestine, nerves and muscles, it is part of bones and teeth, it improves the immunity and the resistance before degenerative illnesses, it possesses a soft laxative effect and stress is anti).

Other not nourishing components but also important

Fibre: a part of the one that the fruits contribute there are pectins, a type of soluble fibre in water that plays a fundamental role in the consistency of the fruits and that, also, possesses beneficial effects for our health. The fibre in the fresh fruits is in a proportion between 0,7 % and 4,7 %. The fruits with a suppressed minor of water or which eatable portion contains seeds, have higher values of dietetic fibre. The fibre content turns out to be reduced with peeled of the fruit. This way in the apples, it diminishes in 11 % and in the pears, about 34 %.

Organic acids: (0,5 % - 6 %): they influence the flavor and aroma of the fruits. The citric acid (citrus fruits, strawberries, pears...), promotes the action of the vitamin C and exercises an action disinfectant and alcalinizadora of the urine. Other organic acids of the fruits are the málico (apples, cherries, plums, apricots) and the salicílico (strawberries and strawberries), the last one of anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory action.

Elements fitoquímicos (colourings, aromas and compounds fenólicos): in spite of being present in very low concentrations, they influence decisively the acceptance and craving for the fruits, and many of them are, also, antirust that help to reduce the risk of degenerative, cardiovascular illnesses and enclosed of the cancer.

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Maturation of the fruits

The fruits one to one
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