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Practical guide. Fruits
Front>> let's Know something more on the fruits
Let's know something more on the fruits
LET'S KNOW SOMETHING MORE ON THE FRUITS.
Introduction Introduction
Classification Classification
Nourishing properties Nourishing properties
Maturation of the fruits
Why do the fruits deteriorate Why do the fruits deteriorate
Quality criteria in the buy, conservation and storage Quality criteria in the buy, conservation and storage
Practical advices at home Practical advices at home
Importance of the consumption of futas for the health Importance of the consumption of fruits for the health
Let's know something more on the fruits
MATURATION OF THE FRUITS
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The maturation of the fruits is tied to complex processes of transformation of his components. The fruits, on having been gathered, remain separated from his natural nutrients source, but his textiles still breathe and they are still active. The sugar and other components suffer important modifications, forming carbon dioxide (CO2) and it waters down. All these processes have big importance because they influence the changes that take place during the storage, transport and commercialization of the fruits, affecting also up to a point to his nourishing value. Phenomena especially out-standing that take place during the maturation are the respiration, the sweetening, the softening and the changes in the aroma, the coloration and the nourishing value.

The respiration: the respiratory intensity of a fruit depends on his development grade and measures itself like the quantity of CO2 (milligrams) that detaches one kilogram of fruit in one hour. Along the growth there takes place, first of all, an increase of the respiration, which is diminishing slowly up to the maturation state. Nevertheless, in certain fruits after the minimum is reached there takes place a new increase of the respiratory intensity up to reaching a maximum value, called climacteric peak, after which the respiratory intensity diminishes again; these fruits are called "climacteric fruits".

The climacteric fruits normally are gathered before the said peak for his commercial distribution, so that they stop maturing out of the tree. This prevents from producing losses to him, since the period of conservation of the mature fruit is relatively short. During the respiration of all the fruits a compound gaseous called ethylene forms. This compound accelerates the maturation processes, therefore it is necessary to avoid his accumulation by means of ventilation, in order to increase the period of conservation of the fruits. If this gaseous compound produced by a mature fruit, accumulates in the outskirts of fruits you do not mature, it unleashes quickly his maturation, what helps to accelerate the deterioration of all of them.

Sweetening:

Sugar: with the maturation there increases the content of simple carbohydrates and the typical sweetness of the mature fruits.

Acids: the acids are diminishing with the maturation. It eliminates the sour flavor and the astringency, to give place to the soft flavor and to the balance sweetness - acidity of the mature fruits.

Softening: the texture of the fruits depends to a great extent on his content in pectins; protopectina and soluble pectin in water. The protopectina catches the water forming a mesh species, and it is the one that it provides to the fruit she does not mature his particular texture. With the maturation, this substance diminishes and it is transforming in soluble pectin, which remains dissolved in the water that contains the fruit, producing to him the characteristic softening of the mature fruit. In someone like the apple, the consistency it diminishes very slowly, but in others, like the pears, the decrease is very rapid.

Changes in the aroma: during the maturation there take place certain volatile compounds that are those who provide to every fruit his aroma. The aromas formation depends to a great extent on external, such factors as the temperature and his changes between the day and the night. This way, for example, the bananas with a rhythm day / night of 30/20ºC, produce 60 more % of volatile compounds responsible for aroma than to constant temperature of 30ºC.

Changes in the color: the maturation of the fruits generally is joined to a change of the color. The most habitual transition, of green to another color, is related to the decomposition of the chlorophyll, so that there stay to the overdraft other colourings that earlier the above mentioned compound was masking. Also, there increases the production of red and yellow colourings typical of the mature fruits. The carotenos content, for example, increases hard in the citrus fruits and the handle during the maturation. The formation of other colourings like the antocianinas, is usually activated by the light.

Nourishing value:

Vitamin C: in general, the fruits lose vitamin C when they mature in the tree and during the storage; in this case, the loss depends to a great extent on the temperature, being much minor if this one is nearby to 0th C.

Provitamina A: this vitamin is very sensitive to the oxidation for contact with the oxygen of the air, for what the bare one, troceado and fruits batter, must be carried out just before his consumption.



Nourishing properties
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Why do the fruits deteriorate

 
The fruits one to one
Let's know something more on the fruits
Personal questionnaire
The organic farming
Calendar of the fruits
What is this Guide?
 
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