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The watermelon also known as sideburn, water melon or melancia, is one of the fruits of major size of all that they are known and it can reach up to 10 kilos in weight. It is the fruit of the sandiera, plantade the family of the Cucurbitaceous ones, which includes approximately 850 species of herbaceous plants that produce fruits generally of big size and protected by a hard crust.



The watermelon is considered to be original of countries of tropical Africa and his cultivation goes back for centuries to the bank of the Nile, where from it spread to numerous regions washed by the Mediterranean Sea. The European settlers were who took it up to America, where his cultivation spread over the whole continent. Nowadays it is one of the fruits most spread over the world, and the principal producing countries are: Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain, China and Japan.

There is had steadfastness of more than fifty varieties of watermelon, which qualify according to the form of his fruits, the color of the pulp, the color of the skin, the weight, the period of maturation, etc. Genetically two types of watermelons exist:

Watermelons diploides or with seeds: there are the cultivated varieties traditionally, which produce black or brown seeds of woody consistency. According to the form of his fruits we find:

Elongated fruits: of green crust with bands of clearer color. They are called melonas. In Spain scarcely they are cultivated. There stand out the guys Klondike and Charleston Gray.

Round fruits: of crust of dark green or black color, there are the most cultivated copies although they are being displaced by the varieties without seeds. They stand out: Crimson Sweet (Almeria), Resistent (Valencia), Sugar Baby (Italy, Greece, Turkey and Spain - Almeria and Valencia-), Dulce Maravilla or Sweet Marvell and Early Star, between the most well-known and most cultivated.

Watermelons triploides or without seeds: It is a question of varieties that have a few tender seeds of white color that happen unnoticed on having eaten the fruit. They are characterized for having the clear green crust with dark green streaks and the meat can be of red or yellow color. They stand out: Queen of Hearts (Almeria), Apirena, Jack and Pepsin, between others.


The watermelons cultivated outdoors bloom between spring ends and summer beginning, therefore the fruits are in his ideal ripeness point throughout the whole summer and autumn beginning. Nevertheless, the watermelon is cultivated in hothouse, for what is easy to have copies throughout the whole year.


It forms: the fruit or watermelon, which botánicamente it is named "pepónide", can have rounded, oval or cylindrical form flattened by the ends.

Size and weight: it is one of the biggest fruits that take place with a size of up to 30 centimeters in diameter, and although they can reach a weight of up to 15 ó 20 kilograms, the destined ones for the commerce usually weigh between 3 and 8 kilos. The watermelons are calibrated by a number, according to the weight of the pieces: 6 (pieces from 1,5 to 2,4 kilos), 5 (pieces from 2,5 to 3,2 kilos), 4 (pieces from 3,3 to 4,2 kilos) and 3 (pieces from 4,3 to 5,5 kilograms). The future perspectives as for the commercialization take root in the size of the fruit, since this one has the problem of being too big for the familiar sizes of the European society, which are diminishing greatly. It is by it that in the future the cultivation tendency is directed to produce fruits of small size (2 kilos or low).

Color: his crust is smooth, it lasts and of approximately 2-4 centimeters of thickness and his color it changes between dark green, light green or yellow, and even can have motes of yellowish, greyish or light green color. In his interior the pulp meets a very attractive reddish or pink coloration, although varieties exist with pulp of intense and even orange yellow color. In the pulp of some varieties there are spread numerous black, brown or white seeds.

Flavor: the pulp has a watery, porous, very juicy texture. It is refreshing and in general it has a delightful sweet flavor.


We know if a watermelon is mature if the spot of the rind that has been in contact with the soil is of creamy yellow color. A white or greenish spot indicates that he retired before time and it will turn out to be insipid, since the watermelon is not climacteric fruit, I motivate for which, so that it is of good quality it has to be gathered when it is completely mature. The trick to choose a mature watermelon is that, on having beaten him with the fingers or the palms of the hands this one sounds to "hollow". His surface does not have to present scars, burns of the sun, graze, dirty areas, bruises or other defects. If a sliced watermelon is acquired, it is convenient to make sure that the meat is firm and juicy.

The watermelon is a fruit that survives in the perfect state for two weeks if it supports some 15°C, and up to three weeks to 7-10°C. Because it is very sensitive to the cold it must not be supported to low temperatures to 7-10ºC. His thick crust allows him to last in good conditions for enough days to environmental temperature.

Many watermelons embark without cooling or without refrigeration and one keeps them like that during the transit, therefore they must sell to themselves quickly since his quality it diminishes very rapidly under these circumstances.

Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion
Calories 20,3
Carbohydrates (g) 4,5
Fibre (g) 0,3
Potassium (mg) 88,5
Magnesium (mg) 11
Acid fólico (mcg) 3
Beta - caroteno (provitamina A) (mcg) 18
mcg = micrograms

The watermelon one can say that it is the fruit that more water quantity contains (93 %), therefore his caloric value is much low, scarcely 20 calories for 100 grams. The levels of vitamins and mineral salt are slightly excellent, being the potassium and the magnesium those who more stand out, although in low quantities compared with other fruits. The pink color of his pulp owes to the presence of the pigment licopeno, substance with antirust capacity. The potassium is a mineral necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse and for the normal muscular activity, it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell.

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