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Grapefruit
GRAPEFRUIT.
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Grapefruit
INTRODUCTION
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The grapefruit also known as grapefruit or pamplemusa, is the fruit of the tree namesake that belongs to the genre Citrus of the family of the Rutáceas. This family understands more than 1.600 species. The botanical genre Citrus is the most important of the family, and it consists of approximately 20 species with eatable fruits very abundant all of them in vitamin C, flavonoides and essential oils. The fruits, called espérides, have the peculiarity of which his pulp is formed by numerous vesicles full of juice.



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ORIGIN AND VARIETIES

The origin of the grapefruit is not known by accuracy, although numerous investigations point out that it is a question of a natural crossing between the sweet orange tree and the pummelo (a different species) produced in Barbados, in the West Indies. From there, his cultivation spread over the whole Caribbean Sea, and later to the United States, where his large-scale production is begun. To today, the grapefruit cultivation is carried out in numerous tropical and subtropical countries and his world production overcomes the 3:8 millions of tons, being the United States the leader with more than 2,3 million tons, and where 45 % is assined to the consumption in fresh air. He is followed in importance by countries as Argentina, Cuba, Cyprus, Israel, Mexico, Mozambique, South Africa, China, Turkey and Spain (principally in the communities murciana and Valencian).


The different grapefruit varieties qualify according to the tonality of his pulp.

White or common varieties: they are those who have the pulp of yellow color, and in spite of being most cultivated increasingly they turn out to be displaced by the varieties pigmentadas. Duncan: there are considered to be the reference grapefruits on the market as for quality. They differ in his big size, his firm and juicy pulp, excellent flavor, good acidity and high levels of sugar; in addition to his numerous seeds (30-50 for fruit). This variety is used in the industry for the juice making and is cultivated almost exclusive in Florida. Marsh (Marsh Seedles): this variety was obtained from Duncan's seeds, and at present it is considered to be the most important variety on a global scale. The fruit has an average size, something smaller than Duncan, with a weight of about 300 grams. The crust is very smooth, lightly gross and the pulp is of clear color. It contains very much juice and scarcely it has pips (2-3 seeds for fruit). His flavor is sweet, although to the beginning of the campaign it turns out to be very acidic.

Varieties pigmentadas: there are grapefruits with the pulp of pink and reddish tone and they owe his color to the pigment licopeno. His popularity and consumption has increased in last two decades in many countries. The showy color only takes place if the cultivation temperatures are high. Thompson or Pink Marsh: it was the first variety pigmentada without seeds and it arose for spontaneous mutation of the variety Marsh. For it, the fruits make alike to the said variety, although it differs in the color of his pulp, lightly hoar-frost, which tends to disappear with the time. His juice does not acquire coloration. Ruby, Redblush, Ruby Red, Network Marsh or Network Seedless: it represents the variety pigmentaria more cultivated, although soon she will turn out to be overcome by more recent varieties. These grapefruits arise for spontaneous mutation of the variety Thompson with that they share similarity, although it presents better quality and a major external and internal reddish tone. The fruit is of minor caliber that the previous varieties and few ones or no seed has. Burgundy: it is the smallest fruit and one believes that also Thompson originated from the variety. It is a late variety that is supported in the tree until summer beginning in good conditions. The yellow color of his smooth crust does not correspond to the intense brown tone of the pulp. Scarcely it has pips (1-2 for fruit) and his pulp is firm, very juicy, with sweet and flavor not bitter at all. One considers of low quality with regard to other varieties pigmentadas, by what scarcely it is cultivated at present. Star Ruby: of average size, scarcely it has seeds (1-2 in some fruits). His skin is very thin, it dies and smooth, yellow with reddish tonalities, and the consistent being allows to peel. His pulp acquires an intense red color and provides abundant juice of flavor more sweet and less bitter than others. It is a fruit that deteriorates very rapidly; while a lot of varieties can be stored in good conditions for several months, this one tends to get damaged in some weeks. Henderson, Ray Ruby and Rio Red: there are the most recent varieties and they are destined to replace Star Ruby, since his fruits are of major size and the trees that produce them are more resistant and manageable.

HIS BEST EPOCH

The grapefruits bloom during the spring and his fruits mature according to the varieties between the autumn months and winter, therefore his best epoch of consumption is between October and March.

CHARACTERISTICS

It forms: the grapefruit is a fruit with form of sphere lightly flattened, although sometimes they can have pear form.

Size and weight: this one citric usually has an average diameter of between 10-25 centimeters, being the average size of 7,5. The calibrated one of the grapefruits, as that of all the citrus fruits, is expressed by the maximum diameter of his equatorial section in a descending scale between the 1 and 9, being the caliber 1, the 9 centimeters fruits and 9 of approximately 3,5 to 4,0. The weight of a grapefruit ranges between 250 and 450 grams.

Color: the crust is thick and resistant although also it can be thin or rough. Initially the skin is of green color and as it is maturing the fruit, it becomes yellow, and even orange reddish. This fruit combines the form of a big orange and the yellow color of a lemon, although there exist varieties of green color, similar to the skin of the lime. Down the skin finds a pulp split into 10 ó 12 segments replete with juice, with a tone that goes from the yellow one to the reddish one.

Flavor: the flavor of the grapefruit is very particular and it disconcerts many people who proves it, who meets a taste less sweet than that of the orange, less acidic than that of the lemon and something was bitter.


HOW TO CHOOSE IT AND TO PRESERVE IT


The citrus fruits if they are juicy must be weighed, for what we will choose the grapefruits that have major weight with regard to his size, since this indicates that they are full of juice. Since the grapefruit is very sensitive to the molds attack and deteriorates with facility, we will reject any copy that has in his rind area hardened or excessively soft and does not resist with steadfastness to the pressure of the fingers. To temperature ambience the grapefruits survive in the perfect state for one or two weeks, although they can be refreshed, and both the juice and the rind admit the freezing.



Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion
Calories 27,6
Carbohydrates (g) 6
Fibre (g) 0,8
Potassium (mg) 190
Magnesium (mg) 10
Provitamina A (mcg) 1,8
Vitamin C (mg) 40
Acid fólico (mcg) 18
mcg = micrograms
NOURISHING PROPERTIES


The water is the principal component of this one citric, therefore the grapefruit possesses a scarce caloric value, to expenses basically of the carbohydrates. As for the vitamins, he stands out for his wealth in vitamin C and acid fólico. The content in carotenoides, pigments that award to the vegetables the orange - reddish color, is not significant except in the varieties of pulp of dark color, with independence of the color of the skin. With regard to the mineral content, they emphasize the potassium and the magnesium. The acids abound in the grapefruit málico, oxálico, tartaric and citric, the last one promotes the action of the vitamin C; responsible for his flavor and on that there depend diverse properties that assume to the grapefruit. The fibre quantity is not representative and this one is especially in the white part between the pulp and the crust, therefore his consumption favors the intestinal transit.


The vitamin C intervenes in the formation of collagen, bones and teeth, red globules and favors the absorption of the iron of the food and the resistance to the infections. The provitamina A or beta caroteno transforms in vitamin A in our similar organism this one needs it. The above mentioned vitamin is essential for the vision, the good state of the skin, the hair, the mucous membranes, the bones and for the good functioning of the immune system. Both vitamins, they fulfill also an antirust function. The acid fólico intervenes in the production of red and white globules, in the material synthesis genetically and the formation antibodies of the immune system. The potassium is a mineral necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse and for the normal muscular activity, it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell.




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