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Practical guide. Fruits
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The apple is the fruit of the apple tree, tree of the family of the Rosy ones. This family includes more than 2.000 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees distributed by moderate regions of the whole world.

The principal European fruits, in addition to the rosebush, belong to this big family. It might be said that the cultivation of the apple is so ancient as the humanity, being the apple tree the most cultivated fruit-bearing tree on a global scale.



The apple has been a symbolic fruit along the history, is quoted in the Bible like the prohibited fruit that provoked the expulsion of the human being of the paradise. Even without knowing his chemical composition and his nutritional properties, the popular knowledge has always attributed healthy virtues to him. It has been thousands of years since gather these fruits. One believes that they already existed in the prehistory as it is demonstrated by archaeological remains that have been in neolithic excavations. In the XIIth century B.C. the apple tree was cultivated in the fertile vales of the Nile in times of the Pharaoh Ramsés III. In the Greek mythology, the golden apple that Paris delivers to the goddess Venus and that provokes the blood feud between Atenea and Hero, went down in history like the well-known "apple of the discord". In the XVIth century, the Spanish conquerors extended the cultivation of the apple to the new world and, hundred years later, from Latin America, the apple tree emigrated to North America and later to north Africa and Australia.

The exact origin of the apple tree is not known. A few authors point out that it comes from the mountains of the Caucasus, while others indicate that the Malus sieversii (Ledeb). Roem. is a wild species that grows in the mountainous regions of average Asia and it might be the apple tree from which they would have originated it makes 15.000 ó 20.000 years the first cultivated species of this tree. The apple was introduced in the peninsula by the Romans and the Arabs and nowadays, Spain is one of the principal producing countries. Catalonia produces 40 % of the whole of the national production followed by Aragon, La Rioja and Navarre. In whole almost 45.000 planted hectares of apple trees of those who obtain every year approximately 780.000 tons of fruit. Other producing countries are: China, the United States, Germany, Italy, Poland, France, Iran, Russia, India, Brazil, Belgium, low Countries and Austria. The facility of adaptation of this tree to different climates and soils, the nourishing value of his fruits and the resistance to the lowest temperatures they allow to cultivate it on a large scale in all the countries of relatively cold climate. More than thousand apple varieties exist in the whole world, although, the scale that offers us the market is limited, since we can only choose between little more of half a dozen of varieties.

Early Network One: it has very good aspect and a brilliant skin of a red intense one. His meat is juicy, slightly aromatic but very sweet. It is on the market from September until June.

Top Network: it is of red color with stretch marks and it has a brilliant skin. The meat is consistent although it is possible to return floury with the time. His flavor is sweet and it is in the fruit store from September until June.

Network Delicious: it is an American variety that provides big and elongated fruits, of skin brilliant red color. His pulp is juicy, very soft, of sweet, flavor not acidic at all and very aromatic.

Starking: she is one of the most well-known, she comes from the United States, being a mutation of the Network Delicious. His skin is brilliant with red and greenish stretch marks. His meat is a yellowish and creaking half note, of sweet flavor. Since one finds the previous ones from September until June on the market.

Gallic Royal: of New Zealand origin it has the skin with red and orange stretch marks on a greenish yellow fund. His form is very rounded and his meat is white, creaking and consistent. Very aromatic and juicy. His compilation happens from ends of August until December.

Granny Smith: it comes from Australia and it is easy to recognize because it has the skin of an intense green color with some white puntitos. It is very round and of white, very creaking and juicy meat with flavor lightly acidic.

Golden Supreme: it is the one that is gathered first, it is on the market from August until November. It is of green color with pink tonalities and of globular form. His creaking and juicy meat is slightly acidic and slightly aromatic.

Golden Delicious: variety of American origin, one of most cultivated in the whole world. His skin is yellow greenish with small dark points that are called lenticelas and that are the respiratory organs of the fruit. His form is round and regular. The meat is juicy, creaking, sweet and aromatic. It is in the fruit stores from September and during the whole year till the end of the following August.

Gray pippin of the Canada: French variety of big size and flattened form. His skin is thick and rough, of rusty or greyish yellow color and his pulp it has viscous aspect, it is juicy and with sugary flavor, with an agreeable acidic point. In Spain, the apple pippin of the Bierzo has a good time for years of Denomination of Origin.

Mcintosh: it is a fruit of medium size and round form. The color of his skin is formed by the combination of two tones of red, or a red one and a green. His creaking and juicy pulp turns out to be lightly acidic.


Considering the numerous apple varieties, we can find most of them on the market from September until June, except Golden Supreme that is free from August until November or Golden Delicious that is practically the whole year.


It forms: there are knobs in general of ovoid form, sometimes elongated or round, that hide numerous seeds of brown color in his interior. His skin is almost always brilliant and smooth.

Size and weight: the most commercialized apples are those whose caliber goes from 75 millimeters to the 85 or more. and his weight ranges from 170 grams up to 250 grams.

Color: the different colors of the skin do that the fruits differ in four groups: green, red, yellow and two-color. All of them with different flavors, aromas and quality of his meat.

Flavor: the pulp can be hard or soft, but always refreshing and juicy, and his flavor goes from the very sweet one to the very acidic one happening for the whole miscellany of acidulous and sugary tastes. The meat is more or less aromatic according to the variety.

The apple is a fruit that attracts attention on the markets because it is possible to find almost the whole year in a few magnificent quality conditions and ready to be emaciated. This is possible thanks to the good practices of manipulation and conservation of the food that exist nowadays. After his compilation, to the apples that are going to be stored diverse conservation methods are applied to them, like the rapid cooling of the fruit, the storage in boxes with plastic movies and the controlled refrigeration, which they reduce the water loss and prevent the skin of the apple from wrinkling.


At the time of choosing the apples, those must be rejected with blows, putrefaction, wrinkles, soft points, spots or spots, although those who have some more or less dark spots or seem speckled they can be perfectly healthy. These motes can be extended by the whole skin and there are one of the characteristics of some varieties, normally excellent for his use in the kitchen.

The ripeness of the apples can be verified grasping them for the center and applying a light pressure to them, if the meat is firm or the skin only wrinkles lightly, the apple is in his best ripeness point. The pulp must always be firm, aromatic and must not turn out to be floury.

In practice, it is frequent to postpone too much the moment of the commercialization. With it, the substances of reservation contained in the fruit are becoming exhausted and in some cases, they denote a loss of flavor, reason for which the consumer remains discontented and distrusts the camera fruits.

Once in the hearth, if the fruits are healthy they survive in the perfect state for days to temperature ambience. There exist varieties which vital force becomes exhausted after 1 ó 2 weeks, while others resist for 6 months or more.

If they want to survive up to 5-6 weeks, it is better to introduce them in a plastic bag and to spray every week with water.

Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion (Red - Golden - Granny Smith)
Calories 46 - 40,6 - 41, 5
Carbohydrates (g) 11,7 - 10,5 - 10,5
Fibre (g) 1,7 - 2,3 - 1,5
Potassium (mg) 99 - 100 - 110
Magnesium (mg) 5 - 5,6 - 4
Provitamina A (mcg) 4 - 4 - 1,5
Vitamin C (mg) 3 - 12,4 - 4
Vitamin And (mg) 0,5 - 0,4 - 0,5
mcg = micrograms

From the nourishing point of view the apple is one of the most finished and enriching fruits in the diet. 85 % of his composition is a water, therefore it turns out to be very refreshing and moisturizing. The sugar, most fructose (sugar of the fruit) and in minor proportion, glucose and saccharose, of rapid assimilation in the organism, there are the most abundant nutrients after the water. It is a discreet vitamin source E or tocoferol and she contributes a scarce vitamin quantity C. It is rich in fibre, which improves the intestinal transit and between his mineral content the potassium stands out. The vitamin E possesses antirust action, intervenes in the stability of the blood cells like the red globules and in the fertility. The potassium, it is a mineral necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse and for the normal muscular activity, it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell.

The extraordinary dietetic properties that assume to this fruit owe to themselves to a great extent to the elements fitoquímicos that it contains, between them, flavonoides and quercitina, with antirust properties.

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