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GRANADA.
INTRODUCTION

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The grenade is an infrutescencia, fruit of a tree called select that reaches up to four meters high, of the family of the Punicáceas; small family of trees and shrubs, which fruits have prismatic and rough seeds.

The fruit possesses a thick skin of color scarlet cloth or gilthead with crimson tone in the exterior and a big quantity of internal seeds surrounded with a juicy pulp of color ruby. In east it is considered to be a symbol of the love and of the fecundity and his virtues have been spread by poets so known as García Lorca.




ORIGIN AND VARIETIES

It is known that the pomegranate tree was cultivated in very remote times because 2.500-year-old Egyptians have found indications of the consumption of this fruit in graves before the Christian age. One believes that the Carthaginians introduced the pomegranate tree in the Mediterranean region immediately after the wars Púnicas, hence his name proposed by Linneo: Punica granatum. Teofrasto described this tree about 300 B.C. and Plinio referred to him like one of the most valuable fruit trees.


The grenade is a fruit arbustiva native to the Eastern bloc of Europe (Coast Dálmata and Greece) and East (Palestine, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan), that is to say, his origin spreads from the Balkans up to the Himalayas. At present, his cultivation is extended by diverse countries of Europe, Asia and America, being outstanding in countries like Afghanistan and Iran, with varieties especially perfumed and tasty, Israel, Brazil and California. Spain is one of the principal producers of the world and the biggest European exporter. The current pomegranate tree surface in Spain overcomes 2.500 hectares, with a production next to 20.000 tons. The varieties most produced in Spain, especially in Andalusia and the Levantine area (Alicante and Murcia) are: Grain Elche, which matures between October and November, and Fleshy of Játiva or Fleshy of Valencia, of earlier compilation, with a few generally higher sale prices, due to the product scarcity in the epoch of compilation.

HIS BEST EPOCH

Although the grenades begin appearing on the markets in the middle of September, the autumn is brought in when this fruit offers us his grains in all his plenitude, and it is supported till the end of January. The grenade must be gathered before it matures completely, if it is not like that, the fruit exploits in the tree. The thickness of his skin makes possible to store them for months and that resists well the transport.

CHARACTERISTICS

It forms: a berry is a so called balausta, of round form.

Size and weight: lnormalmente his diameter ranges between 70-90 millimeters or more.

Color: there happen different scales that go of the red brilliant one to the yellowish green or to the whitish one.

Flavor: the interior of the grenade is divided by means of a whitish membrane where every container lodges numerous seeds of pink or red color of sweet and sour flavor that remembers lightly that of the redcurrants.


HOW TO CHOOSE IT AND TO PRESERVE IT


It is convenient to choose the fruit without courts or bruises. A quality grenade appears stay away of growth cracks and without wrinkles in the skin, which can be a delay consequence in his compilation. It is very important that the skin is hard and smooth and that it has a living color with brown tones. It is necessary to choose the copies of good size and of high weight with regard to his size. It is possible to open when the rind acquires a brown tone. The grenades are supported in good conditions for several days if they survive to temperature ambience. If they are not going to be consumed immediately, it is preferable to keep them in the refrigerator, and this way his useful life gets longer approximately three weeks.



Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion
Calories 31,8
Carbohydrates (g) 7,5
Fibre (g) 0,2
Vitamin C (mg) 5,7
Provitamina A (mcg) 3,5
Potassium (mg) 275
Magnesium (mg) 3
Calcium (mg) 8
mcg = micrograms
NOURISHING PROPERTIES


It is a fruit of very low caloric value due to his scarce content of carbohydrates. The majority component is the water and other nutrients, only he emphasizes his mineral potassium contribution. This mineral is necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse and for the normal muscular activity, it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell. Other outstanding components are the citric acid (of action disinfectant, alcaliniza the urine and potency the action of the vitamin C), málico, flavonoides (pigments of antirust action) and the tannins. The above mentioned are substances with astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. Some of the actions of the tannins are to dry and desinflamar the intestinal mucous membrane (layer that upholsters the interior of the digestive conduit), therefore they turn out to be effective in the treatment of the diarrhea. The tannins are recognized quickly by the rough sensation that they produce to the palate.




AS REGARDS THE HEALTH
Once shelled, of eating the grains can be a task entertained for the smallest, consumed like fresh fruit or like ingredient of salads to change to the maximum the dietetic habits of the smallest.

For his low content in calories and carbohydrates, his consumption can be contemplated by those who continue a slimming diet and the persons with diabetes.

The tannins that this fruit contains award the astringent and anti-inflammatory property in the mucous membranes of the digestive tract. The crust (malicorium) and the internal dividing walls are the parts of the fruit that more present tannins quantity. For it, the grenade consumption is indicated in case of infectious diarrheas, intestinal colics, flatulence (gas excess) and delicate stomach. The crust of the fruit and the plates or internal dividing walls that separate every grain possess alkaloids with properties vermífugas, therefore they are very effective to expel the tapeworm and the intestinal earthworms. The antiseptic and anti-inflammatory qualities that assume to this fruit, also are based on his content in acids like the citric acid and málico, responsible for his agreeable acidulous flavor. The citric acid favors the elimination of uric acid and his salt across the urine, by what the grenade consumption is much adapted in case of hiperuricemia or drop and litiasis renal for uric acid salt.

The grenade also contains flavonoides, vegetable pigments responsible for the reddish color of his grains, of antirust and antiseptic action. The above mentioned components have the aptitude to receive free radicals harmful to the organism, therefore the grenade consumption helps to reduce the risk of degenerative, cardiovascular illnesses and of cancer.

Likewise, for his high content in potassium and low in sodium, they turn out to be very advisable for those persons who suffer arterial hypertension or complaints of blood glasses and heart. Nevertheless, his consumption will have to bear it in mind the persons who suffer from renal insufficiency and who need of special diets controlled in this mineral. Nevertheless, to whom they take diuretics that eliminate potassium and to the persons with bulimia; due to the episodes of autoinduced vomiting that provoke big losses of this mineral, the grenade consumption is convenient for them.



CURIOSITIES
It is known that Hipócrates was using the juice of grenade as medicine to treat complaints of the digestive tract.

The internal dividing walls of the fruit, mixed with pepper, salt and ginger are used in some oriental cultures like a popular remedy to clean the teeth and to strengthen the gums.

Any fruit all the more sun receives more coloring acquires. To the grenade the opposite happens to him, for the side that gives him the sun with more intensity and during more time, the grains in his interior remain of whitish color.

The pomegranate tree, tree of the grenade, looks like more a shrub than a tree. Nevertheless, not only he is appreciated by his fruit, but by the beautiful orange flowers that it produces in the epoch of flowering. In gardening it is cultivated like ornamental tree or for the formation of very thick hedges and of beautiful aspect the variety of pomegranate tree Punica granatun cv. Grandma. It is a question of a dwarf variety, which normally does not produce fruit, but if it is provided with numerous and beautiful flowers.


HOW TO PREPARE IT

One of the biggest problems that presents the grenade on having boiled away is the extraction of the grains of his wrapped interior one. A form easy to extract the grains of the grenades consists of dividing the fruit for the half, taking select average, being too tight a little so that the grains come loose, and on a source or plate, with the cut down, bangs his/her/its it in the skin with the handle of a big knife (or similar) while it him is turning with the hand.

Another procedure is the following one: to extract the end of the chalice doing a square with 4 knife courts; from each of the corners of this square, to do a slightly deep cut (that does not touch the grains or very little) that descends up to the stem of the fruit, in the opposite end. In whole 4 courts. To separate in 4 segments the fruit and to shell it. Next, it is necessary to eliminate all the whitish skins because they have a bitter flavor.

Another procedure is the following one: to extract the end of the chalice doing a square with 4 knife courts; from each of the corners of this square, to do a slightly deep cut (that does not touch the grains or very little) that descends up to the stem of the fruit, in the opposite end. In whole 4 courts. To separate in 4 segments the fruit and to shell it. Next, it is necessary to eliminate all the whitish skins because they have a bitter flavor.

The grains of his wrapped interior one. A form easy to extract the grains of the grenades consists of dividing the fruit for the half, taking select average, being too tight a little so that the grains come loose, and on a source or plate, with the cut down, bangs his/her/its it in the skin with the handle of a big knife (or similar) while it him is turning with the hand. Another procedure is the following one: to extract the end of the chalice doing a square with 4 knife courts; from each of the corners of this square, to do a slightly deep cut (that does not touch the grains or very little) that descends up to the stem of the fruit, in the opposite end. In whole 4 courts. To separate in 4 segments the fruit and to shell it. Next, it is necessary to eliminate all the whitish skins because they have a bitter flavor.

The grains of this fruit can be used in the making of different desserts like the fruit salad; along with the melon and the raspberry they are part of the cocktail known as "fruits of the passion". The grains macerated with honey, juice of lemon or must of grapes have a delightful flavor. The pulp that wraps the seeds, mitigates the thirst, because it has a flavor sweetened with sour tones, very agreeable. Also they are used to prepare ice creams, gelatine, mousses and you cremate. In the Alpujarra of Granada, a salad is done with lettuce and grains of the fruit dusted over the green sheets. In the Arab countries a few marzipan cakes are prepared with abundant recovering of the grains, which also they use for filling in some stews. The Turks prepare a rice cream with almonds, named "keskul", to which they add some grains of grenade. In other oriental kitchens eggs dress up with the true grains to the plate and the resultant flavor is something piquant.

The juice that native of Granada obtains of this fruit named, is very refreshing and possibly be his most well-known commercial product. It is used to do syrups, jams and ice creams. It is possible to take alone or mixed with other juices like pineapple or lemon. The commercialization of the grenade as product of the fourth scale and his use in the manufacture of jams, jellies, jams, juices, etc., is acquiring every major day interest.







SALAD OF AVOCADO, ORANGE, SELECT AND PRAWNS

4
20'
minimum

Ingredients

- half green lettuce
- half purple lettuce
- 500 grams of prawns
- 2 medium avocados
- 1 orange
- 2 grenades
- 6 olive oil spoonfuls
- 2 vinegar spoonfuls
- 200 grams of mayonnaise

To cook the prawns in water with a trickle of oil and abundant salt. When it breaks the boiling, to throw the prawns, to allow 3 minutes to the fire, and past this time, to withdraw the casserole of the fire. To extract the prawns of the warm water and to cool them quickly in water with ice. Once colds, they are peeled.

Meanwhile, to clean the lettuces, trocear the sheets of an informal way and to mix 2 types of sheets. To reserve for later.

To peel the avocado, taking the central bone from him and to fillet it in plates. To peel the orange and to extract the segments. If it is possible, and patiently to peel every orange segment. To peel the grenade and to extract the grains of the fruit.

At the bottom of the plate to place the lettuce lightly dressed with oil and vinegar and to be inserting you laminate of avocado, orange and tails of prawns, salsear with a little of mayonnaise over the prawns. To end up by dusting with the grains of grenade for the whole plate.



 
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