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INTRODUCTION

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The avocado belongs to the family of the Lauráceas, which includes producing woody plants of extracts that grow in warm regions, and in which also there are included the laurel, the camphor and the cinnamon. The species that are known of the avocado are: Mexican, Antillana and Guatemalan. The fruits of the Mexican species are of small size and they contain a high percentage in oil, while those of the Antillean one, they are of major size and of suppressed minor of oil. The fruits of the Guatemalan species present intermediate characteristics between both.




ORIGIN AND VARIETIES


The avocado is a native of Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela. The first Spanish who came to America baptized to this fruit with the " name "of the Indies", considering his external resemblance with the Spanish pears. The principal producers today are: Mexico, Brazil, the United States, Australia, Israel, China, Kenya, South Africa and Spain. The varieties that more are commercialized in the points of sale are: Hass (the most well-known and commercialized; of small size, rough and of dark skin and yellow pulp. It takes place in Mexico and in Spain, specifically in Andalusia), Bacon (the earliest variety, of green color brilliant and much cultivated in Spain), Cocktail or date (lengthened and without central bone, of thin and delicate flavor; it is cultivated in Israel, Spain and is commercialized especially in France), Loudly (in the shape of dull pear and thin, rough skin and exquisite flavor, with a 250 grams approximate weight; cultivated in Israel, Kenya, South Africa and Spain) and finally, the variety Pinkerton (lengthened and with way of pear, of rough skin and agreeable flavor, cultivated in Israel).

HIS BEST EPOCH

The variety it is possible to buy Bacon from October, Loudly during the whole year and the Pinkerton, only it is free in February and March.

CHARACTERISTICS

It forms: with pear form, in his interior it contains the only rounded seed of clear color and 2-4 centimeters long (except the variety date), that she turns out to be covered with a thin woody layer of brown color.

Size and weight: although there exist varieties that weigh approximately 100 grams and others that can reach 2 kilograms, which more are commercialized usually measure 10-13 centimeters, with a 150-350 grams weight.

Color: the crust, thick and hard, with rugosity, presents a green coloration that changes in intensity according to the variety. The pulp is creamy, oily, of green color it cremates or palely to yellowish target, very similar to the butter.

Flavor: the flavor of the pulp resembles that of the nut and the hazelnut.

The compilation generally is done to hand, since it is a very delicate fruit. A stairs is used and the stem is cut over the insertion with the fruit. The fruits do not mature in the tree, but they do it once have been gathered, moment in which there takes place an intense respiratory activity (they detach ethylene), therefore his storage for long periods is difficult. The above mentioned respiratory activity differs according to the variety and the grade of ripeness, the environmental conditions and of storage.


HOW TO CHOOSE IT AND TO PRESERVE IT


One has to be proved that the skin does not present any type of defect like spots, black points or signs of excessive maturation.


The avocado is mature if, on having shaken it, one notices that the bone moves or yields to the light pressure with the finger. If it is not completely mature, it is necessary to leave to temperature ambience during the necessary time, 1-3 days. His maturation process can hasten if it is wrapped in newsprint together with an apple or a banana.


If on the contrary the avocado is in his ripeness point, to stop the maturation he has to keep in the least cold part of the icebox (not at least of 6ºC).


The avocado can freeze. For it, it is necessary to extract the pulp, her to squash good and to mix it with a little of lemon juice.


For his tasting, it has to be opened just before his consumption, since the pulp turns black with rapidity. This can be avoided spraying it immediately with lemon juice. On the other hand, if, on having consumed it only, we use a half, which remains can survive in ideal conditions for the following day leaving the bone to him, shower with lemon juice in the icebox and protégée with role movie or in a receptacle of hermetic closing.



Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion
Calories 134,3
Fats 134,3
Carbohydrates (g) 1,3
Fibre (g) 2,4
Potassium (mg) 320
Magnesium (mg) 18
Provitamina A (mcg) 119
Vitamin And (alpha - tocoferol) (mg) 2,3
Vitamin C (mg) 4
Acid fólico (mcg) 8
Piridoxina (mg) 0,3
mcg = micrograms
NOURISHING PROPERTIES


The fats constitute the principal component after the water, by what his caloric value is raised with regard to other fruits, but lower than that of the coconut, of major greasy content.


It contributes a low carbohydrates quantity and minor still of proteins.


As for the fat, this one is for the most part monoinsaturada; 72 % of the whole of fats is an acidic oleico typical of the olive oil.


It is rich in minerals like the potassium, the magnesium and poor in sodium. The potassium is necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse, for the normal muscular activity and it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell. The magnesium is related to the functioning of intestine, nerves and muscles, is part of bones and teeth, improves the immunity and possesses a soft laxative effect.


He emphasizes his vitamin content E (antirust, it intervenes in the stability of the blood cells and in the fertility) and of certain vitamins hidrosolubles of the group B, like the B6 or piridoxina, that collaborates in the good functioning of the nervous system.




AS REGARDS THE HEALTH
The avocado is a fruit that generally is used as vegetable or vegetable, delicate flavor and of easy consumption rich in fats monoinsaturadas, antirust and mineral; allied of our health. Bearing in mind the above mentioned nourishing properties, it is very advisable for all the segments of the population: children, young people, adults, sportsmen, pregnant women, nursing mothers and major persons.

For his contribution of antirust and type fats monoinsaturado, his consumption is recommended especially, to whom they have major risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases. The fats monoinsaturadas have the property of reducing the valuations of entire cholesterol in blood, at the expense of the so called "bad cholesterol", the LDL-c, at the time that they increase the HDL-c levels, "the good cholesterol", which in our body is in charge of transporting for the blood the cholesterol from the cells to the liver, preventing from accumulating in the walls of the blood glasses.

The vitamin E, like antirust, helps to reduce the risk of multiple illnesses, between them, cardiovascular, the degenerative ones and even the cancer. Also, for his wealth in magnesium and potassium and under sodium contribution, it turns out to be very advisable for those persons who suffer from arterial hypertension or complaints of blood glasses and heart and for those who have bulimia or take diuretics that eliminate potassium. His potassium content will have to be born in mind by the persons who suffer from renal insufficiency and who need of diets controlled in this mineral.

For being quite caloric, his consumption has to be moderated in case of excess weight or obesity.


CURIOSITIES
The name of this fruit has Aztec origin and derives from the word - ahuacatl - that alludes to his form of testicle. There exists the popular belief of which for his form and wealth in vitamin E (related to the reproduction), it has aphrodisiac properties.

In addition to being an excellent food, from the mature avocados there is extracted oil similar to that of olive, which is much used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry.


HOW TO PREPARE IT

The avocado is used more like a vegetable than like a fruit. To open it, it is necessary to cut it longitudinally up to the bone, turning round him completes to the fruit. Seguidamente to turn the halves in the opposite direction one of other one until there becomes detached the bone of one of them.

He lacks sweet flavor, what it allows him to combine appropriately with numerous plates.

Fresh air; filling of ham, of crab... Also it consume usually lightly cooked and in purée. The pulp of the avocado is used often as if it was a butter once crushed and dressed with lemon and oil.

The mashed avocado is a preparation by means of the crushed pulp of avocado, to which they add peppers, onions, spices, tomato and lemon juice. Also juices, batters are prepared and even avocado soups. In Zaire there is obtained a species of beer of avocado, using this fruit as raw material.

When we prepare plates with avocados, we must not forget that the salt must begin them at the moment of going to eat, so if it puts itself in advance, this does that the avocados are darkened. Likewise, it is not good to cook it, since it becomes bitter of flavor, although if it is possible to warm.






STUFFED AVOCADOS

4
30'
minimum

Ingredients

- 4 avocados
- 1 canister of 150 grams of cooked corn
- 80 grams of blocks of ham york extra
- 80 grams of semicured cheese
- 40 grams celery in julienne
- lemon juice
- 6 soup spoonfuls of oil and salt

To peel, to wash and to sting the chive and to mix with the celery. To sting the olives. To open the avocados for the half, to remove the bone and to empty with a spoon (to leave at least one centimeter of pulp adhered to the rind); to sting it and to spray it with the juice of the lemon to prevent from turning black. To mix the pulp withdrawn from the avocado with the rest of ingredients. To distribute the miscellany in the empty avocados, to place the surplus of the filling in the center of the plate where we are going to serve and decorate with a few toasted panecitos.



 
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