Papaya
PAPAYA.
INTRODUCTION

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It is a soft, very juicy fruit and of buttery consistency. It belongs to the family of the Caricáceas, formed by 71 species of trees without branches that produce big fruits and grow in tropical regions of Africa and South America. There exist other species that belong to the same genre as the common papaya, from which there comes the papaya, which fruits are not eatable. This fruit fills the first world vacancy in what it refers to exportation.




ORIGIN AND VARIETIES


It is original of Mexico according to a few authors and of the Peruvian Andes according to others. One believes that from Mexico, the cultivation of the papaya spread to all the tropical countries. At present it is cultivated in Florida, Hawaii, Eastern Africa, South Africa, India, Canaries, Malaysia and Australia. They emphasize the varieties Only, Bluestem, Graham, Betty, Fairchild, Rissimee, Puna and Hortusgred. The most recognized are Alone, which fruit weighs approximately 450 grams, with form of pear and hard rind, of sweet flavor and the variety Puna, both proceeding from Hawaii.

HIS BEST EPOCH

It is possible to buy it the whole year, but the best epoch to enjoy all his attributes is the winter.

CHARACTERISTICS

It forms: it is an ovoid-oblong berry, piriforme or almost cylindrical, big, beefy, juicy and ranurada longitudinally in his top part.

Size and weight: 10-25 centimeters long and 7-15 or more of diameter, his weight is about 500-1000 grams, going so far as some copies to weigh more than 5 Kilograms. In Africa, there exist dwarf varieties of approximately 300-400 grams in weight.

Color: it presents a thin skin and of yellowish, yellow or orange green color when it matures. Some varieties keep on being green when they are already mature, although in general the skin yellows with the maturation. The pulp is red orange or reddish, with a more or less intense tone. The papaya of red pulp is tastier.

Flavor: his aroma remembers to the melon, and the sweetness of his pulp, that of the pear, the melon or the strawberry. His interior is full of black or gray seeds of piquant flavor.

The epoch of compilation comes when the fruits begin being softened and losing the green color of the apex. The ripeness reaches to 4 ó 5 days of the compilation and the fruits take a yellow color. Some varieties as Betty do not change color. Due to his thin skin, it is a question of very delicate fruits, by what they are bruised easily. For it, they must be wrapped individually and be packed with cushioned by all the sides for his transport and commercialization. They must be supported during short periods of time to 10-12ºC.


HOW TO CHOOSE IT AND TO PRESERVE IT


The fruit that is green in the beginning is in the ideal moment for his consumption, so much from the nourishing point of view as organoléptico, when he begins acquiring a yellowish tone. It is frequent that some brown specks disfigure the skin, but this does not affect by no means to the quality of his pulp. The mature fruit yields easily to the pressure of the fingers, detaching the part of the stem a soft aroma dulzón.


The papaya is a quite perishable and very fragile fruit, due to his soft and thin skin, for it it is necessary to manipulate it carefully. When it is mature it has to survive in the refrigerator, where it will be supported in good conditions for approximately one week. If it still has not matured, it is necessary to leave to temperature his ambience until the green skin yellows. If this does not happen, it is a sign from which the fruit has been gathered too soon, and in this case, it is recommended to cook it as vegetable.



Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion
Calories 26,5
Carbohydrates (g) 6,3
Fibre (g) 1,9
Potassium (mg) 211
Magnesium (mg) 8
Provitamina A (mcg) 97,5
Vitamin C (mg) 82
Acid fólico (mcg) 1
mcg = micrograms
NOURISHING PROPERTIES


After the water, his principal component sound the simple carbohydrates, the majority, although in small quantities, therefore his caloric value is low. He emphasizes his potassium contribution and in what it refers to vitamins, it is a very important vitamin source C, as well as of provitamina A. It contains small quantities of one enzyme, the papaína, which helps to digest the proteins. The vitamin C intervenes in the formation of collagen, bones and teeth, red globules and favors the absorption of the iron of the food and the resistance to the infections. The beta - caroteno transforms in vitamin A in our similar organism this one needs it. The vitamin A is essential for the vision, the good state of the skin, the hair, the mucous membranes, the bones and for the good functioning of the immune system. Both vitamins fulfill also an antirust function. The potassium is a mineral necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse and for the normal muscular activity, it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell. The papaya is a good source of fibre, which improves the intestinal transit.




AS REGARDS THE HEALTH
Ideal for major persons, with dental problems or with delicate stomach or heavy digestions, since the pulp of the papaya is very easy to chew, to swallow and to digest.

The papaína, is an enzyme proteolítica (that undoes the proteins of the food), similar to the pepsin that is in our gastric juice, what awards his beneficial digestive properties. In such digestive complaints like the gastritis, the rupture of hiatus, the pirosis or acidity, etc., turns out to be very suitable, since he helps to neutralize the excess of acidity of the stomach. The conditioning and antiseptic action on the digestive mucous membranes, they make her very useful in case of gastroenteritis and colawsuit of any type.

It is a sweet, refreshing fruit and of easy consumption, rich in substances of antirust action, I motivate by which it is adapted, bearing in mind also his nourishing properties, for the whole population: children and young people, adults, sportsmen, pregnant women or nursing mothers and major persons.

For his vitamin contribution C and of provitamina A, his consumption is recommended especially to those who have a major risk of suffering lacks of the above mentioned vitamins: persons who do not tolerate the citrus fruits, the pepper or other vegetables, which are an almost exclusive vitamin source C in our feeding; for those who must carry out a diet low in fat and therefore with a scarce vitamin content A or for persons whose nourishing needs are increased. Some of these situations are: periods of growth, pregnancy and breast feeding. Likewise, the tobacco, the abuse of the alcohol, the employment of certain medicines, the stress and the diminished defenses, the intense physical activity, the cancer and the AIDS and the chronic inflammatory illnesses diminish the use and produce bad nutrients absorption.

Also, because the vitamin C increases the absorption of the iron of the food, by what it is advised in case of anemia ferropénica, accompanying to the food rich in iron or to the supplements of this mineral, since this accelerates the recovery.

The vitamins C and A, like antirust, they help to reduce the risk of multiple illnesses, between them, cardiovascular, the degenerative ones and even the cancer. The vitamin A also is necessary for the health of the skin.

His fibre content awards his laxative properties. The fibre prepares or improves the constipation, helps to reduce the cholesterol valuations in blood and to the good control of the glycemia in the person who has diabetes. He exercises an effect saciante, what he benefits to the persons who carry out a diet to lose weight.

Also, for his wealth in potassium and under sodium contribution, they turn out to be very advisable for those who suffer from arterial hypertension or cardiovascular complaints. His potassium content will have to be born in mind by the persons who suffer from renal insufficiency and who need of diets controlled in this mineral. Nevertheless, who take diuretics that eliminate potassium and the persons with bulimia, due to the episodes of autoinduced vomiting, will benefit from his consumption.


CURIOSITIES
The papaya contains approximately 7-9 % of sugar. Flavor changes exist when they mature in the summer months in his fatherland since his content in sugar is major.

The papaya contains papaína, that comes from the drying of the latex that is obtained of the pinzamiento of the diverse green parts of the fruit. It is used in drugstore by his action vermífuga, that is to say, that expels the intestinal parasites; in the feeding industries to soften the meat; in the textile to macerate the fibres of wool and cotton and in the tanning industry for the leather tanning. The extraction of the latex is obtained realizing several incisions on the green fruit and is gathered in a few plastic bags that make a detour to the trunk of the tree. The stems and the sheets contain small quantities of carpaína, a stimulant alkaloid of the cardiac rhythm. The dry and sifted seeds are used like seasoning by his piquant flavor.


HOW TO PREPARE IT

Fresh air is the best way of taking it; it breaks in tracks to which it is possible to add sugar and juice of lime that heightens his flavor. Also it is used in salads, raid takes and jellies are done... It combines very well with shellfish, birds, ham, meat and fish. One advises to eat it fry. The pips of the fresh fruit are piquant, but dried, they can be used to season diverse preparations.














SALAD OF FRUITS WITH PAPAYA

4
20'
minimum

Ingredients

- 2 bananas in tracks
- 4 kiwis bare and cut in tracks
- 10 dates without bone and coffees with a dash of milk in halves
- 2 guavas cut by the half and then in the shape of wedge
- 1 papaya cut in the shape of the fourth crescent
- 2 fresh, bare handles and in tracks
- A few grapes without seeds, half notes or black women in halves
- 1 small melon, in dice
- Watermelon 1/4, in dice (optional)
- 4 (optional) fresh figs in halves


To prepare the fruits as it is suggested and to have in a receptacle of big crystal, for layers. To spill on them the lemon with a spoon and to dust with salt. To end up by interspersing the dry fruits superficially.



 
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