Cherries and Morello cherries
CHERRIES AND MORELLO CHERRIES.
INTRODUCTION

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The cherries and the morello cherries are the fruits of the cherry tree and of the morello cherry tree respectively, trees of the family of the Rosy ones that reach up to 20 meters high. This family includes more than 2.000 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees distributed by the moderate regions of the whole world. The principal European fruits, in addition to the rosebush, belong to this big family. There exist hundreds of varieties of cherries. His producers classify them for his flavor in sweet or sour. Also there exist hybrids of sweet and sour varieties that can eat up both fresh and cooked in one without forms end. The wild cherries classified like sour fruit, are named morello cherries and are the antecesoras of all the current varieties.




ORIGIN AND VARIETIES

The origin of these fruits is located in the Black Sea and in the Caspian Sea, spreading later towards Europe and Asia, by means of the birds and the human migrations. At present, the cherry tree is cultivated in numerous regions and countries of the world with moderate climate, being the countries of major production Russia, the United States, Germany, Italy, France and Spain. In our country, the vale of the Jerte, in Caceres, is an area of traditional production. The vale of the Ebro and the Andalusian community are increasing in a notable way his production.


The varieties most known in Europe split into sweet cherries (Prunus avium) or you embitter (Prunus cerasus). Inside the first ones we have the cherries Napoleón, big, creaking and giltheads with a red flush. These cherries were known under the name of Royal Annes in the England of the XIXth century. The Tartar black woman is another variety of sweet cherry, of very dark color, tender meat and exceptional flavor. It is said that it interfered in Europe from the Caucasus, where from the birds transported his seed.

In Spain, the cultivated sweet varieties traditionally are: Napoleón much spread in Spain and much dear as fruit for table and for the making of jams; Ambrunesa, very late, of creaking consistency and sweet flavor; Burlat, a variety of thick fruit, red, firm, juicy and sugary pulp, of maturation very precocious and moderately resistant to the raw one.

Other crescent varieties I cultivate and consume in our country they are: Starking, Lapins, Summit, Vittoria, Go (California), Pillory and Sandy.

The sour varieties are dark fruits of short stems, named griottes in France or you hang in Castilian. Sometimes they turn out to be so sour that they cannot eat up. They are small and round and they offer a color that ranges of the dark red one up to the black. The most important varieties cultivated in the north areas are: Richmond, Montmorency and Morello.

Nowadays the hybrid cherries are cultivated also, with a few characteristics similar to the common cherry, of black or dark red color but with the acidulous flavor of the morello cherry.

HIS BEST EPOCH

The cherries and the morello cherries are summer fruits, although we can enjoy his agreeable flavor from ends of April (the earliest) until middle of August.

CHARACTERISTICS

It forms: there are drupes, of rounded, globular form or with figure of heart. They possess a globular and almost smooth bone.

Size and weight: his size ranges according to the commercial category between the 13 and 20 millimeters and they have a 2 centimeters approximate diameter and a weight of 6-9 grams.

Color: it presents colors that change between dark purple or black, tones you cremate paler with a light pink flush and the red one, according to the variety.

Flavor: sweet and juicy or sour, especially valuable in the morello cherries. The cherries for transformation can be gathered mechanically while the destined ones for the consumption in fresh air are gathered to hand. They retire as mature as possible because the sugar does not increase after the compilation, there are not climacteric fruits.


HOW TO CHOOSE THEM AND TO PRESERVE THEM


On the market there must be chosen the fruits of a living dark red or black color, according to the variety. The beefy ones are always the best. They must be clean and to have a firm, brilliant, entire skin and without breaks or imperfection. His stems must be green and fresh. It is convenient to make sure that the stem should be well joined to the fruit and in the point of union of both there should no be rottenness or mold. Also it is important that they do not have malformations (double fruits). In general, there are the cherries of major size those that offer better flavor. In case of the morello cherries, the best are the regions and bores, of light red color or yellowish rosé.


Once they have reached his ripeness point it is convenient to keep them in the icebox without washing nor to cover; this way they can survive up to two weeks. They admit the freezing, fresh airs or daubed of a light syrup, and as the plums are the varieties of cherries and of darker morello cherries those that better support the freezing.



Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion
Calories 58,3
Carbohydrates (g) 13,5
Fibre (g) 1,5
Provitamina A (mcg) 3
Vitamin C (mg) 8
Potassium (mg) 260
Magnesium (mg) 11
Calcium (mg) 16
mcg = micrograms
NOURISHING PROPERTIES


The cherry is rich in carbohydrates, especially fructose, although his caloric value is moderated with regard to other fruits. It contributes significant quantities of fibre, which improves the intestinal transit. As for his vitamins content, they are present in small quantities the provitamina A and the vitamin C.


What in fact he emphasizes from the cherries is his content in flavonoides (especially antocianos, related to the color typical of these fruits) and acid elágico of the group of the polyphenols, antirust excellent both. It has important potassium quantities and in minor proportion, magnesium and calcium, the last one of worse use than the one that comes from the milk or other food that are a good source of the above mentioned mineral. The potassium, it is a mineral necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse and for the normal muscular activity, it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell.




AS REGARDS THE HEALTH
It is a fruit of big acceptance, very attractive for the children, quality for which it is possible to stand out like model for the education of the nutritive habits of the smallest, encouraging this way the consumption of this so important group of food.

The cherries have a high content in antocianos and acid elágico, of antirust and antiseptic action; to fight infections. The antirust ones block the harmful effect of the so called "free radicals".

The respiration in the presence of oxygen is essential in the cellular life of our organism, but as a result of the same one there take place a few molecules, the free radicals, which cause along the life negative effects for the health across his aptitude to alter the ADN (the genes), the proteins and the lípidos or fats ("oxidation"). In our body there exist cells that are renewed continuously (of the skin, of the intestine.) and others that not (cells of the liver...) . With the years, the free radicals increase the risk that genetic alterations take place on the first ones, favoring the cancer development or, reduce the functionality of the second ones, what is typical of the aging process. There exist certain situations that increase the free radicals production, between them: the intense physical exercise, the environmental contamination, the nicotinism, the infections, situations of stress, diets rich in fats and her on exhibition to the solar radiation. The relation between antirust and cardiovascular diseases, it is today a well sustained affirmation. It is known that it is the modification of the called "bad cholesterol" (LDL-c), which redeems a fundamental role both in the beginning and in the development of the aterosclerosis (illness that consists of an engrosamiento and abnormal hardness of the internal covering of the blood glasses, due to a deposit of greasy material and cells, which prevents or makes the step of the blood difficult). The antirust ones can block the free radicals that modify the called bad cholesterol, helping to reduce the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk. On the other hand, the low levels of antirust constitute a risk factor for certain types of cancer and of degenerative illnesses.

For his potassium plenty, the consumption of cherries and morello cherries has to be done moderately in case of renal insufficiency, in which the potassium contribution is restricted. Nevertheless, for his high place contained in water and potassium, beneficial diuretic possesses an effect in case of hiperuricemia or drop and litiasis or kidney stones (they facilitate the elimination of uric acid and his salt), arterial hypertension or other illnesses associated with retention of liquids. Also his consumption is convenient when there are used diuretics that eliminate the above mentioned mineral, and in case of bulimia due to the episodes of autoinduced vomiting that cause big losses. His fibre content awards his laxative properties. The fibre prepares or improves the constipation, helps to reduce the cholesterol valuations in blood and to the good control of the glycemia (sugar levels in blood) in the persons who have diabetes. Nevertheless, the most late cherries have major content in sugar as what the persons with diabetes and those who carry out systems to lose weight will have to bear in mind the consumption ration.

The oxalic acid that the cherries contain can form salt with certain minerals like the calcium and form oxalato calcic, by what his consumption has to be born in mind if this type of kidney stones is endured, since it might aggravate the situation.


CURIOSITIES
The general Roman Cúpulo was the person in charge of popularizing the cherries consumption in Europe it does two thousand years. The Roman chroniclers and especially Plinio, makes sure that although in the Roman empire some wild varieties of this fruit were known, it was from the war against the king of the Ponto, in Asia Minor, when his cultivation began.


HOW TO PREPARE THEM AND TO PRESERVE THEM

They can be consumed from fresh airs, like dessert or in cakes, mousses and sherbets, or sweetened or like bonbons filling. Those who are destined to cooking, prepare themselves withdrawing his bones with a deshuesador. If they are squeezed too much on having boned them they can lose very much juice. In some countries as France or England they are used very much in the spices dressmaking to accompany the hunting, the pig and the birds. The cherries flamed with a sauce of brandy and spilled on an ice cream of vanilla form the well-known dessert called Cherries Jubilee. The canned cherries are not so firm and tasty, therefore it is preferable to use them in sweet plates. From the black cherry, for fermentation, firewater and other spirits drinks are obtained by distillation. The morello cherries are so sour that fresh airs cannot take, for what they survive often in bottles and are excellent to prepare cakes and some pies


OMELETTE OF CHERRIES

4
40'
way

Ingredients

- 4 eggs
- 100 grams of sugar
- 100 grams of butter
- Half a kilogram of cherries
- 1 glass of orange liquor or firewater of cherry
- a pinch of salt and a pinch of sugar

Rehearth the cherries boned with half of the butter. To add the sugar and to allow to cook until they are tossed in oil. In a bowl to beat the eggs with a pinch of salt and sugar. To add the well drained cherries and to mix all good (to reserve the syrup of the cherries). In a frying pan, to melt the rest of the butter and rennet-bag the previous miscellany as to prepare an omelette. To serve the cherries omelette with the reserved syrup and her to flame with the liquor previously warmed.



 
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