Grapes
GRAPES.
INTRODUCTION

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The grape or grain of grape is the name that receives the fruit that grows forming bunches of the common vine or European vine. It belongs to the genre Vitis of the family of the Vitáceas, which includes approximately 600 shrubs species, in general climbers and that produce fruits in berry, proper of warm and tropical countries. Inside the genre Vitis there are included approximately 20 species cultivated by his fruits and someone by his sheets that are consumed like any vegetable.




ORIGIN AND VARIETIES

The vine is one of the first plants that the man cultivated, it motivated for which it has played a transcendental role in the economy of the ancient civilizations. After the mitificación of the wine on the part of the Christianity, the cultivation of the vine experienced a big heyday that has lasted until our days. In fact, most of the production of grape is assined to the making of the different types of wine (target, rosé and red wine) and other drinks (must, mistelas, muscatel).

In Europe, the grape is cultivated from prehistoric times, as it is demonstrated by the seeds that have been in archaeological deposits of the age of the bronze of Switzerland, Italy and in graves of the ancient Egypt. The botanists place the origin of the grape cultivated in Europe in the Asian region of the Caspian Sea, where from the seeds dispersed towards the west for the whole Mediterranean basin. The ancient Greeks and Roman ones were cultivating the vine and both civilizations developed to a great extent the wine-growing. The last ones continued with this practice and extended the vines cultivation for all his colonial territory. From the year 1800 there begins the cultivation of vines protected with glass in the cold countries, so that there increased significantly the quality of the produced grapes. Further on there begun to be constructed hothouses provided with heating for the cultivation of the vines.

They were the Spanish colonists those who introduced the vine in North America, where from it spread over the whole continent, but the attempt failed as a consequence of the attacks of parasites and the illnesses. As result of it, at the end of the XIXth century the development of the vine in Europe suffered a big blow after the contamination by an American insect called phylloxera. In 30 years the plague propagated for all the vineyards and these were on the point of disappearing, what forced to adopt the American vines resistant to the plague like bosses of the European vine, and there were obtained resistant varieties, fruit of the hybridization of both types of plants.

Nowadays, the vine is cultivated in the warm regions of the whole world, being the biggest producers: Australia, South Africa, the countries of Europe (Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Turkey and Greece) and in the American continent, the best vineyards are in California, Chile and Argentina.

Innumerable grapes varieties exist with big differences between; in form, size, tonality of the fruits, productivity, quality, etc. All of them have qualified traditionally according to his final destination be for vinificación or for table consumption. The European varieties consider to be superior to the North Americans to prepare wines of table, like fruits of dessert and of table and to prepare you happen; while the last ones are preferred to obtain juices and jellies.


The most outstanding varieties of grape of table:

The table grape has to have low acidity, to be poor in sugar and to fulfill certain norms of size, color and form. Muscatel grape: it is the most popular variety due to his delicate aroma and his delightful sweet flavor. The grains are big, round, very smooth, with the white, black or red skin. Sweetwater: it is a grape of thin skin, green color and less marked flavor. She turns out to be adapted for the cultivation in hothouse.

Lambrusca: it is an American variety, with the hard skin that moves back easily from the pulp and is cultivated in a cold climate. Muscadina: it is cultivated in the southern states of the United States and bronze is typical for his color fruits. In Spain the pocketed Grape of table Vinalopó enjoys Denomination of Origin. It takes place in the province of Alicante, in the region of the vales of the Vinalopó and adjacent. Three varieties exist for this grape: Ideal or Italian, of bigger bunch; Aledo, more late and of medium bunch, and Rosetti. There are grapes of very thin skin, with a pale tonality of yellow color wax, uniform size and exquisite flavor.

The grapes you happen more valued they are obtained of the varieties without seeds, of low acidity and rich in sugar. In Spain, the grapes of Malaga possess Denomination of Origin. These grapes you spend high quality sound big, sweet, with pips and they come from the Muscatel grape. The currants owe his name to the Greek city homónima where they are cultivated for thousands of years. They are identified by his dark color, his marked aroma, lack pips and they are much smaller than the rest. You spend them sultanesses are grapes you go on from clear color, without seeds and extraordinarily sweet, therefore they are more employees in confectioner's and confectionery.

The varieties of grape destined to the making of wine of table must present relatively high acidity and a content moderated in sugar. The varieties most extended to prepare the white wines are: Young pigeon, Macabeo, Malmsey wine, Muscatel, Chardonnay and white Grape. For the red wine making: Grape dyes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot to nongo, Syrah, Cariñena, Tempranillo (acquaintance as Ull of llebre in Catalonia, Cencibel in Castile the Spot and thin Red wine in Castile and Leon), Dyer and Graciano, between others.

HIS BEST EPOCH

The grape is maturing according to the varieties and the areas of cultivation from summer middle up to winter beginning. The compilation of the grape is carried out as soon as the maturation stage is possible, what happens between middle of September and end of November. Therefore, the fresh period grapes can be tasted during the autumn months and winter beginning.

CHARACTERISTICS

It forms: Beefy fruit that is born packed in long bunches composed by several round or elongated grains.

Size and weight: the bunches that are commercialized fit to a few quality norms that determine the weight and the average size of the fruits; these will have a 1,6 centimeters average diameter and a weight of between 200 and 350 grams.

Color: the skin is greenish, yellowish, reddish or purple, depending on the varieties.

Flavor: it has a juicy pulp and dulzona.


HOW TO CHOOSE IT AND TO PRESERVE IT


Before buying the grapes, wave the bunch very gently. The grains must remain in his place, and if someone falls down the grape is too mature. The bunches must be massifs and the firm fruits, with smooth skin and of uniform color and size; the black or red varieties must not present any green sign.


Once at home, the grape survives for the long time in the perfect state if it is taken in his just ripeness point and is hung by the tail down, so that the grains separate some of others and do not touch, on hooks placed in stretched wires. They can shut themselves up also in a special role bag sulfurizado or of cellophane and hang them of a nail. In the refrigerator, they survive in good conditions up to fifteen days. So that they have all his flavor and aroma, it is convenient to extract them of the icebox one hour before being emaciated.



Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion (White Grape - Black Grape)
Calories 63 - 67
Carbohydrates (g) 16,1 - 15,5
Fibre (g) 0,9 - 0,4
Potassium (mg) 250 - 320
Magnesium (mg) 10 - 4
Calcium (mg) 17 - 4
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0,1 - 0,1
Provitamina A (mcg) 3 - 3
Acid fólico (mcg) 16 - 26
mcg = micrograms
NOURISHING PROPERTIES


The composition of the grape changes as it is a question of white or black grapes. In both they emphasize two types of nutrients: the sugar, principally glucose and fructose more abundant in the white grapes and the vitamins (fólico acid and vitamin B6), the last one in a quantity that only turns out to be overcome by the dried fruits and the tropical fruits like the avocado, the banana, the custard apple, the guava and the handle. His wealth in sugar, turns them into one of the most caloric fruits. The grapes cultivated in cold regions usually have less sugar that cultivated in warm and dry areas. Between the minerals, the potassium is the most abundant and it is in major quantity in the black grape; while the magnesium and the calcium are in moderate quantities and are more abundant in the white grape. The use in the organism of the latter mineral is not so much like the one that comes from the milk or other food that are a good source of the above mentioned mineral.


In the grapes diverse substances abound with recognized beneficial properties for the health, such like antocianos, flavonoides and tannins, responsible for the color, aroma and texture typical of these fruits, and on that there depend diverse properties that assume to him to the grapes.


The nourishing and energy differences between the fresh grapes and you spend them they are notable, since the above mentioned constitute a very energy food, and his caloric contribution is approximately four times superior to that of the fresh grape. Rest of nutrients also it concentrates, therefore his content in fibre, vitamins and minerals is significantly a Superior.


The acid fólico intervenes in the production of red and white globules, in the material synthesis genetically and the formation antibodies of the immune system. The vitamin B6 helps to support the normal function of the brain, acts in the formation of red globules and intervenes in the metabolism of the proteins. The potassium is necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse, for the normal muscular activity and it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell.




AS REGARDS THE HEALTH
The grape, for the facility that it offers to be consumed and the sweetness that his grains provide, it constitutes an ideal dessert for the persons of all the ages, which in addition to his exquisite flavor will be favored of his nourishing properties.

The sanitary benefits of the grape derive both from his nourishing components and of another series of substances, which properties are a study object in recent investigations. It is a question of the compounds fenólicos, abundant in the grapes and responsible for his color and flavor, such like antocianos, tannins and flavonoides, all of them with powerful antirust action. The antocianos are the pigments responsible for the color of the black and red grapes and they are absent in the white varieties. The tannins award the astringency sensation to the green grapes. Inside the flavonoides, the resveratrol is the most recognized. It is present especially in the skin of the black and red grape and has antifungoid properties, that is to say, the fungi growth prevents in the grapes. The last scientific studies have showed his efficacy on having inhibited or to block the tumor growth, therefore the habitual grape consumption is recommended in case of cancer and if risk factors appear.

Antirust and free radicals

All the mentioned compounds have antirust capacity. During the processes that take place in the cells substances harmful to the organism are generated, called free radicals, and related straight to the development of cardiovascular, degenerative diseases, cancer and to the proper process of aging. Recent studies reveal that the antirust ones help to block the formation of the above mentioned substances. Flavonoides and resveratrol, in particular, they produce the following benefits on the circulation in the arteries: vasodilatación, therefore the blood flow increases; decrease of the aggregation plaquetaria (the blood circulates more fluid with what diminishes the risk of formation of clots or thrombi) and inhibition of the oxidation of the cholesterol LDL-c that unleashes his deposit in the arteries and gives place to the aterosclerosis.

Essentially, we can make sure that the grape and the must (juice of grape) are food that favor the good state of the arteries and of the heart. To the benefits of the antirust substances, the contribution joins in potassium and magnesium, minerals that intervene in the contraction of the muscles and of the heart. Nevertheless, his consumption will have to be born in mind by the persons who suffer from renal insufficiency and who need of special diets controlled in this potassium. Nevertheless, to whom they take diuretics that eliminate potassium and to the persons with bulimia; due to the episodes of autoinduced vomiting that provoke big losses of this mineral, the consumption of these fruits is convenient for them.

Rich in fibre

The grape, for his content in fibre it is a soft laxative. In case of constipation, it is recommended to consume the grapes without peeling and with pips, since it is there where there are the substances that favor the intestinal motilidad and help to regulate his functioning. For those who suffer from delicate stomach, the most suitable thing is to consume the juice of the grape or must. For the wealth in sugar of the grapes, the persons with diabetes and excess weight can take them but controlling the quantity.

The moderate acid content fólico or folatos, essential vitamin in the processes of division and cellular multiplication that they take place in the first months of gestation, it does that the grapes consumption turns out to be interesting for the pregnant women to prepare the forked thorn, alteration in the development of the nervous system (pipe neural) of the fetus.

Due to his particular composition, these fruits possess an effect beneficial diuretic in case of hiperuricemia or drop and litiasis renal (it favors the elimination of uric acid and his salt), arterial hypertension or other illnesses associated with retention of liquids.

The oxalic acid that the black grapes contain can form salt with certain minerals like the calcium and form oxalato calcic, by what his consumption has to be born in mind if this type of kidney stones is endured, since it might aggravate the situation.

The polyphenols and the tannins, abundant substances in the red varieties can unleash migraine in inclined persons.


CURIOSITIES
Twelve grapes of the luck taken to the beginning of every New Year there is a recent superstitious custom of the beginning of the XIXth century. The origin of this tradition takes root in the excessive harvest that took place for then, reason for which the harvesters decided to get rid of the remaining grapes suggesting the people to take them to the rhythm of the last strokes of the year.


HOW TO PREPARE THEM

The grape is a very valued food and one takes well batters as a fresh fruit, in the shape of fruit salads, or as an ingredient of different desserts. In general, all the grapes combine very well with cheese, and the grapes Muscatel get on especially well with the foie gras.

A very well-known and valued by-product of the grapes is the must or juice of grape, which obtains it to crush and to liquefy the entire grains with skin and without pips of the grapes. In contrast to the wine, it supports the natural properties of the fruit from which it comes and lacks alcohol. The unripe grape is the juice that is obtained from immature grains of grape. It performs acidic flavor and it can substitute perfectly in a dressing the lemon or the vinegar.

The grapes you happen there are another alternative of consuming the grapes and they are obtained after the fruits of certain varieties dry up. The grapes you happen there constitute an agreeable aperitif and sell usually mixed with different dry fruits (almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts...). In the kitchen they turn out to be very useful like ingredients of numerous products of confectioner's and confectionery for his extraordinary sweet flavor, as well as accompaniment or filling of salty plates.




WHITE GARLIC WITH GRAPES

8
30'
minimum


- 250 grams of raw almonds without skin
- 2 bare cloves of garlic
- 150 grams of breadcrumb target
- 500 grams of Muscatel grape
- 1 soup spoon of vinegar of sherry
- 1 liter of well cold water
- 150 milliliters of oil of extra virgin and a pinch of salt.

To scald the almonds in water boiling 2 minutes so that it jumps the skin. To drain them and to peel them with help of a clean cloth. To peel the grapes and to take the seeds from them. To crush in the mortar (or in the mixer) the almonds, the garlics, the breadcrumb and the salt. To work little by little with the mace, adding a thin oil jet to him up to obtaining an emulsion thickens. To add the vinegar, to keep on working a little more the miscellany and to add the cold water. To support in the refrigerator for several hours until now of serving.

When it goes to extract to the table, try, rectify of salt and vinegar, add the grapes and serve very coldly.



 
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