Mulberries
MULBERRIES.
INTRODUCTION

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The popular wild mulberry, it is in fact the blackberry, also so called black raspberry. It is a question of a fruit that grows in shrubs of the family of the Rosy ones, which includes more than 2.000 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees distributed by the moderate regions of the whole world. The principal European fruits, in addition to the rosebush, belong to this big family. Likewise, they are included inside the genre Rubus, which does not ever have to make a mistake with the fruits of the genre Morus; Morus nigra and white Morus L., which grow in trees.




ORIGIN AND VARIETIES

These fruits are native to Asia and Europe and they can be seen in the wild state in margins of ways or gorges. They grow in humid areas and in some cases, like the sloe brandy, they can be to 1.500 meters of altitude. They mature during the summer months and autumn. At present, species are cultivated with commercial ends, for what is easy to find them on specializing markets. The bilberry that is consumed in Spain comes basically from Australia, Chile, Holland and Italy, but every time they take major relevancy those who come from Huelva and Asturias.

More outstanding varieties:


It grows wild in many areas, flatness, mountains, forests skylights and especially in earrings and sunny margins. It is a fruit constituted by small drupes or grains that gather together between themselves. The first sound of green color, later red and when they are mature, they acquire a brilliant black color. More than 300 species of mulberry exist, although only nine have commercial value. On a global scale, the cultivation varieties come from the species Rubus occidentalis or from hybridizations with Rubus ideaus. In Colombia, the species cultivated commercially is the Rubus glaucus or it resides of Castile. Inside the cultivated mulberries varieties and hybrids exist with thorns and varieties without thorns. Also, inside this classification they differ commercially in sweets and not sweets. The three most commercial mulberries varieties are: Logan: there are a crossing between a blackberry and a raspberry, they are more acidic than the blackberries and less scented than the raspberries. They present a coloration purple and they are devoid of seeds. Young: resultant from the crossing between a bramble of the stubbles and a raspberry. It has aspect of elongated blackberry. His flavor is acidic and little scented. Boysen: crossing between the variety Young and the raspberry. They are of big size and his aspect is very similar to the raspberry. Tay: it is a crossing between the blackberry and the raspberry caused in Scotland. Scarlet cloth is big, acidic and of a tone.

HIS BEST EPOCH

They are gathered from the ends of August and in the month in September. They survive during 7 to 10 days in a few certain conditions of temperature and relative moisture. At home, it is necessary to preserve them in the refrigerator, where it remains in ideal conditions up to 3 days.

CHARACTERISTICS

It forms: it is a fruit of small size, round or lightly elongated, composed for small globules that contain in his interior a tiny, perceptible and sometimes annoying seed during his consumption.

Size: a length has from 1,5 to 2 centimeters.

Color: they tend to be of intense brilliant black color.

Flavor: it is sweet when it is well mature with acidic tones.


HOW TO CHOOSE THEM AND TO PRESERVE THEM


On having chosen this type of fruits, it is suitable to be fixed in his color, it has to be brilliant and intense. Road surfaces must be to the tact and dry seasons, since the soft and humid ones get damaged earlier. They usually deteriorate for dehydration, quitter of the small grains that form them or rust.


Normally the aroma accompanies to the aspect of the food and there are usually very perfumed fruits.


There must not be acquired the fruits that are not mature thinking that they will mature already at home, since this will not happen. It is not also suitable to acquire them too mature since they lose his juice.



Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion
Calories (Kcal) 35,1
Carbohydrates (g) 6
Fibre (g) 9
Potassium (mg) 210
Magnesium (mg) 1
Provitamina A (mcg) 29
Vitamin C (mg) 18
Vitamin And (mg) 13,3
mcg = micrograms
NOURISHING PROPERTIES


These fruits are of low caloric value for his scarce carbohydrates contribution. There are especially rich in vitamin C the black redcurrants and the red ones, which have quantities major than some citrus fruits. In general, the wild berries are a good fibre source; that improves the intestinal transit, and of potassium, iron and calcium (these two last ones of worse use that the proceeding ones from food of animal origin), tannins of astringent action and of diverse organic acids. Nevertheless, what in fact it characterizes to these fruits is his plenty of natural pigments (antocianos and carotenoides) of antirust action. In the human feeding, this type of fruits constitutes one of the most important sources of antocianos, who award his typical color and who are together with such organic acids like the oxalic acid or the malic acid, responsible also for his flavor. The vitamin C has antirust action, as the antocianos and carotenoides. The above mentioned vitamin intervenes in the formation of collagen, bones and teeth, red globules and favors the absorption of the iron of the food and the resistance to the infections. The potassium is necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse, for the normal muscular activity and it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell.




AS REGARDS THE HEALTH
The antocianos and carotenoides they are abundant in the composition of all these fruits of the forest. From the biochemical point of view they are characterized for possessing a high antirust activity; they neutralize the action of the free radicals that are harmful to the organism. These properties can give place to very diverse physiological effects; anti-inflammatory effects and antibacterial action of the antocianos, between others. These fruits contain, in addition to the antocianos and carotenoides, antirust others like the vitamin C. The dietetic ingestion of these substances promotes our immune system or of defenses of the organism and helps to reduce the risk of degenerative, cardiovascular illnesses and enclosed of the cancer. Also, the vitamin C has the aptitude to favor the absorption of the iron of the food, therefore it improves or prepares the anemia ferropénica. There exist certain vital situations in which the organic needs for vitamin C are increased, like pregnancy, lactation, nicotinism, employment of certain medicines, stress and diminished defenses, intense sports practice, cancer, AIDS and chronic inflammatory illnesses. In the above mentioned situations, the consumption of wild berries rich in vitamin C is indicated especially.

The fibre is a very abundant component in these fruits, therefore his habitual consumption during the months in which they abound can turn out to be a remedy to treat the constipation and the intestinal apathy.

The fruits when they are still green, are rich in tannins, which this roughness sensation awards in the palate and they turn out to be astringent and refreshing, but once they reach his finished ripeness, the tannins diminish and the fruits acquire laxative, tonic and depurative properties.

Particularly, the bilberries are ideal to fight infections and to improve the peripheral circulation. The juice of bilberries of the red variety, he exercises a surprising antiseptic and antibiotic action on the causative gérmenes of the urinal infections, especially on Escherichia Coli. In case of cystitis, there is recommended the capture of a big glass full of approximately 300 milliliters of daily fresh juice, during one to three months, like treatment and prophylaxis.

Also, the bilberries contain acid quínico, substance that is eliminated and acidifies the urine, so that he prevents from forming calculations or litiasis renal of calcic phosphate, not of another type of calculations.


CURIOSITIES
The dark fruits with black, reddish or violet colors were already known in Greece and they were named "a blood of titanium". The wild red redcurrants can make a mistake with the snowball (Viburnum opulus), a shrub that grows close to the water, it blooms from June and his fruits are red brilliant. The consumption of raw Viburnum can cause poisoning. There is known the existence of the liquor of sloes from the middle age. The queen Blanca de Navarra being sick took liquor of this fruit with medicinal ends. During the XIXth century the presence of pacharaneras selling sloes on the markets of Pamplona, Navarre, was very habitual.


HOW TO PREPARE THEM

These fruits it is possible to consume the native, alone or accompanied by ice cream, yogurt or cream, juice and with them there can be prepared delightful ice creams, sherbets, summer puddings, jams and even be added in salads or together with the cereals of the breakfast. At industrial level, the mulberries are used often to prepare gelatine, jams and jams. In the area of the Vale of the Jerte (Caceres), an exquisite liquor is done by the wild mulberries.











TARRINA OF FRUITS


40 ' more 1 or 2 nights of refrigeration
minimum

Ingredients

- 100 grams of black redcurrants
- 120 grams of red redcurrants
- 110 grams of bilberries
- 350 grams of strawberries
- 225 gramosde raspberries
- 4 plates ó 10 grams gelatine in dust
- 250 milliliters of pink wine
- 2 spoonfuls of extrathin sugar
- 1 lemon juice spoonful
- 75 milliliters of purée of raspberries

To select the fruits, to withdraw the stems and, next, to mix them carefully not to spoil them. To set to dip the gelatine. To arrange carefully the fruit in an elongated mold of 13 x 23 x 7 centimeters of one kilo of capacity, arranging the smallest fruit below. In a small ladle, to warm half of the wine until he begins boiling. To withdraw the ladle of the fire and to add the sugar, the gelatine and the lemon juice. To remove to dissolve it well. To incorporate the remaining wine and the raspberries in purée. To reserve 150 milliliters of the liquid and to spill the rest on the fruit. To cover the surface with transparent movie. To place above a mold lightly heavily, one kilo in weight, and to refresh it for one hour, like minimum, or the whole night if possible, until the tarrina is curdled. To withdraw the mold of above and the transparent movie. To warm lightly the reserved liquid and to spill it on the surface of the tarrina. To cover again with the transparent movie and to refresh the whole night. Just before serving desmoldar the tarrina wetting a moment the base of the mold in warm water and overturning it on a source.

To cut the tarrina in tracks, to decorate it with additional fresh berries.



 
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