Apple
APPLE.
INTRODUCTION

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The apple is the fruit of the apple tree, tree of the family of the Rosy ones. This family includes more than 2.000 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees distributed by moderate regions of the whole world.

The principal European fruits, in addition to the rosebush, belong to this big family. It might be said that the cultivation of the apple is so ancient as the humanity, being the apple tree the most cultivated fruit-bearing tree on a global scale.




ORIGIN AND VARIETIES

The apple has been a symbolic fruit along the history, is quoted in the Bible like the prohibited fruit that provoked the expulsion of the human being of the paradise. Even without knowing his chemical composition and his nutritional properties, the popular knowledge has always attributed healthy virtues to him. It has been thousands of years since gather these fruits. One believes that they already existed in the prehistory as it is demonstrated by archaeological remains that have been in neolithic excavations. In the XIIth century B.C. the apple tree was cultivated in the fertile vales of the Nile in times of the Pharaoh Ramsés III. In the Greek mythology, the golden apple that Paris delivers to the goddess Venus and that provokes the blood feud between Atenea and Hero, went down in history like the well-known "apple of the discord". In the XVIth century, the Spanish conquerors extended the cultivation of the apple to the new world and, hundred years later, from Latin America, the apple tree emigrated to North America and later to north Africa and Australia.

The exact origin of the apple tree is not known. A few authors point out that it comes from the mountains of the Caucasus, while others indicate that the Malus sieversii (Ledeb). Roem. is a wild species that grows in the mountainous regions of average Asia and it might be the apple tree from which they would have originated it makes 15.000 ó 20.000 years the first cultivated species of this tree. The apple was introduced in the peninsula by the Romans and the Arabs and nowadays, Spain is one of the principal producing countries. Catalonia produces 40 % of the whole of the national production followed by Aragon, La Rioja and Navarre. In whole almost 45.000 planted hectares of apple trees of those who obtain every year approximately 780.000 tons of fruit. Other producing countries are: China, the United States, Germany, Italy, Poland, France, Iran, Russia, India, Brazil, Belgium, low Countries and Austria. The facility of adaptation of this tree to different climates and soils, the nourishing value of his fruits and the resistance to the lowest temperatures they allow to cultivate it on a large scale in all the countries of relatively cold climate. More than thousand apple varieties exist in the whole world, although, the scale that offers us the market is limited, since we can only choose between little more of half a dozen of varieties.


Early Network One: it has very good aspect and a brilliant skin of a red intense one. His meat is juicy, slightly aromatic but very sweet. It is on the market from September until June.

Top Network: it is of red color with stretch marks and it has a brilliant skin. The meat is consistent although it is possible to return floury with the time. His flavor is sweet and it is in the fruit store from September until June.

Network Delicious: it is an American variety that provides big and elongated fruits, of skin brilliant red color. His pulp is juicy, very soft, of sweet, flavor not acidic at all and very aromatic.

Starking: she is one of the most well-known, she comes from the United States, being a mutation of the Network Delicious. His skin is brilliant with red and greenish stretch marks. His meat is a yellowish and creaking half note, of sweet flavor. Since one finds the previous ones from September until June on the market.

Gallic Royal: of New Zealand origin it has the skin with red and orange stretch marks on a greenish yellow fund. His form is very rounded and his meat is white, creaking and consistent. Very aromatic and juicy. His compilation happens from ends of August until December.

Granny Smith: it comes from Australia and it is easy to recognize because it has the skin of an intense green color with some white puntitos. It is very round and of white, very creaking and juicy meat with flavor lightly acidic.

Golden Supreme: it is the one that is gathered first, it is on the market from August until November. It is of green color with pink tonalities and of globular form. His creaking and juicy meat is slightly acidic and slightly aromatic.

Golden Delicious: variety of American origin, one of most cultivated in the whole world. His skin is yellow greenish with small dark points that are called lenticelas and that are the respiratory organs of the fruit. His form is round and regular. The meat is juicy, creaking, sweet and aromatic. It is in the fruit stores from September and during the whole year till the end of the following August.

Gray pippin of the Canada: French variety of big size and flattened form. His skin is thick and rough, of rusty or greyish yellow color and his pulp it has viscous aspect, it is juicy and with sugary flavor, with an agreeable acidic point. In Spain, the apple pippin of the Bierzo has a good time for years of Denomination of Origin.

Mcintosh: it is a fruit of medium size and round form. The color of his skin is formed by the combination of two tones of red, or a red one and a green. His creaking and juicy pulp turns out to be lightly acidic.

HIS BEST EPOCH

Considering the numerous apple varieties, we can find most of them on the market from September until June, except Golden Supreme that is free from August until November or Golden Delicious that is practically the whole year.

CHARACTERISTICS

It forms: there are knobs in general of ovoid form, sometimes elongated or round, that hide numerous seeds of brown color in his interior. His skin is almost always brilliant and smooth.

Size and weight: the most commercialized apples are those whose caliber goes from 75 millimeters to the 85 or more. and his weight ranges from 170 grams up to 250 grams.

Color: the different colors of the skin do that the fruits differ in four groups: green, red, yellow and two-color. All of them with different flavors, aromas and quality of his meat.

Flavor: the pulp can be hard or soft, but always refreshing and juicy, and his flavor goes from the very sweet one to the very acidic one happening for the whole miscellany of acidulous and sugary tastes. The meat is more or less aromatic according to the variety.

The apple is a fruit that attracts attention on the markets because it is possible to find almost the whole year in a few magnificent quality conditions and ready to be emaciated. This is possible thanks to the good practices of manipulation and conservation of the food that exist nowadays. After his compilation, to the apples that are going to be stored diverse conservation methods are applied to them, like the rapid cooling of the fruit, the storage in boxes with plastic movies and the controlled refrigeration, which they reduce the water loss and prevent the skin of the apple from wrinkling.


HOW TO CHOOSE IT AND TO PRESERVE IT


At the time of choosing the apples, those must be rejected with blows, putrefaction, wrinkles, soft points, spots or spots, although those who have some more or less dark spots or seem speckled they can be perfectly healthy. These motes can be extended by the whole skin and there are one of the characteristics of some varieties, normally excellent for his use in the kitchen.


The ripeness of the apples can be verified grasping them for the center and applying a light pressure to them, if the meat is firm or the skin only wrinkles lightly, the apple is in his best ripeness point. The pulp must always be firm, aromatic and must not turn out to be floury.


In practice, it is frequent to postpone too much the moment of the commercialization. With it, the substances of reservation contained in the fruit are becoming exhausted and in some cases, they denote a loss of flavor, reason for which the consumer remains discontented and distrusts the camera fruits.


Once in the hearth, if the fruits are healthy they survive in the perfect state for days to temperature ambience. There exist varieties which vital force becomes exhausted after 1 ó 2 weeks, while others resist for 6 months or more.


If they want to survive up to 5-6 weeks, it is better to introduce them in a plastic bag and to spray every week with water.



Composition for 100 grams of eatable portion (Red - Golden - Granny Smith)
Calories 46 - 40,6 - 41, 5
Carbohydrates (g) 11,7 - 10,5 - 10,5
Fibre (g) 1,7 - 2,3 - 1,5
Potassium (mg) 99 - 100 - 110
Magnesium (mg) 5 - 5,6 - 4
Provitamina A (mcg) 4 - 4 - 1,5
Vitamin C (mg) 3 - 12,4 - 4
Vitamin And (mg) 0,5 - 0,4 - 0,5
mcg = micrograms
NOURISHING PROPERTIES


From the nourishing point of view the apple is one of the most finished and enriching fruits in the diet. 85 % of his composition is a water, therefore it turns out to be very refreshing and moisturizing. The sugar, most fructose (sugar of the fruit) and in minor proportion, glucose and saccharose, of rapid assimilation in the organism, there are the most abundant nutrients after the water. It is a discreet vitamin source E or tocoferol and she contributes a scarce vitamin quantity C. It is rich in fibre, which improves the intestinal transit and between his mineral content the potassium stands out. The vitamin E possesses antirust action, intervenes in the stability of the blood cells like the red globules and in the fertility. The potassium, it is a mineral necessary for the transmission and generation of the nervous impulse and for the normal muscular activity, it intervenes in the water balance inside and out of the cell.


The extraordinary dietetic properties that assume to this fruit owe to themselves to a great extent to the elements fitoquímicos that it contains, between them, flavonoides and quercitina, with antirust properties.




AS REGARDS THE HEALTH
It is the excellent fruit, since it is well tolerated by most of persons and combines without problems with any other food. In his nourishing composition there are no nutrients that they emphasize especially, therefore it turns out to be difficult to imagine the extraordinary properties dietoterápicas. Today it is known with certainty of the existence and the function of some of the components of this fruit that he is awarded by his antirust character and the double peculiarity of acting like astringent or laxative food according to how it is emaciated.

The antirust properties of the apple owe to themselves to the elements fitoquímicos that it contains, more abundant in skin, in particular, polyphenols (quercitina, flavonoides). The antirust ones neutralize the free radicals, reducing or even avoiding part of the damages that these provoke in the organism. The free radicals increase the dangerous actions of the cholesterol LDL, which can give place to the aterosclerosis formation, on having accumulated in the blood glasses; they can produce a genetic alteration and damage proteins and corporal fats, reducing the functionality of the cells and helping to increase the cancer risk. Therefore, considering his composition in antirust substances, the apples are recommended especially in diets of prevention of cardiovascular risk, degenerative illnesses and cancer.

The content moderated in potassium of the apples turns them into a fruit diurética, recommended in the dietetic treatment of diverse cardiovascular diseases, like the arterial hypertension or other illnesses associated with retention of liquids. Nevertheless, the contribution of this mineral is restricted in case of renal insufficiency by what the apple consumption in these cases has to be born in mind.



Perhaps the property most known about the apple is his intestinal regulatory action. If we eat hangover and with skin it is useful to treat the constipation, since one makes use of the present insoluble fibre in the skin, which stimulates the intestinal activity. The same way, the apple is a fruit very rich in pectin, soluble fibre. Only a fifth part of the pectin of the apple is in the skin of the fruit, the rest in the pulp, therefore, on having peeled it, a small quantity gets lost. The pectin has the peculiarity of retaining water, and charitable effects assume to him in case of diarrhea since it makes the intestinal transit slower. Also, the apple is, after the quince, one of the fruits richest in tannins, substances with astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. Some of the actions of the tannins are to dry and desinflamar the intestinal mucous membrane (layer that upholsters the interior of the digestive conduit), therefore they turn out to be effective in the treatment of the diarrhea. The tannins are recognized quickly by the rough sensation that they produce to the palate. Nevertheless, the tannins appear when one allows to darken the grated pulp of a bare apple. So that we can say that the raw apple and with skin it is laxative, that is to say, usefully to treat the constipation, and if the apple is consumed bare, grated and darkened it has the opposite effect in our organism, it turns out to be astringent.

Although there has always assumed to the apple the peculiarity of which taken as dessert he helps to reduce the badge formation and avoid the caries, we must not forget that it contains sugar and acids that spoil the enamel, therefore it cannot substitute the toothbrush.

The oxalic acid that contains the apple can form salt with certain minerals like the calcium and form oxalato calcic, by what his consumption has to be born in mind if this type of kidney stones is endured, since it might aggravate the situation. Nevertheless, big part of the above mentioned acid gets lost by means of cooked of the apple.


CURIOSITIES
The apples split into two classes: those that mature as soon as the summer ends; there are fruits of little perfume, which survive badly and those that mature later, firmer, perfumed and more resistant.


HOW TO PREPARE IT

The different apples they usually consume hangovers as fruit of table or like ingredient of salads. They can be used also in sauces and stews although his principal applications are in compotes, sweets, cakes, pastries, gelatine, jams and juices. The raw apples cut in tracks or stings contribute a fresh and creaking texture to the salads; the famous salad Waldorf consists of dice of celery, apple and nuts troceadas dressed with mayonnaise. On having peeled the apple, it gets dark soon and to avoid this it rubs with a lemon divided by the half and is peeled in the last moment.

On having cooked this fruit, it is important to select the varieties most adapted to cook and to choose the most creaking, juicy and acidic. Many plates that take this principal ingredient such like cakes, pies, meat pasties and donuts depend on the consistency of the apple to support his form. If butter and sugar is added to the varieties chosen before initiating the cooking, one will prevent from disintegrating.

The cooked apples are exquisite if there is added to them nail, cinnamon or seeds of coriander. The rum also harmonizes with this preparation. To accompany to eggs plates, meats and fish it is possible to prepare an apple mayonnaise; prepared on having mixed mayonnaise and purée of apples cooked with little sugar. Some plates as the Iranian khoresh combine the apples with onions and cinnamon. In western Germany they are dusted by breadcrumbs, are cooked, are fried and are accompanied on ham.

On having prepared roast apples, the best thing is to do an incision about the apple in all his circumference. This incision must not be too deep and it will be done by the top of a knife and in the top part of the apple. This way one prevents during the roast from bursting for effect of the interior heat and from breaking during the cooking. If it is desirable to prepare an applesauce, to improve his flavor, there is added to the cooking little water and a stick of cinnamon or of vanilla and the peeling of half a lemon.

To consume the juice of this fruit is also an excellent way of taking advantage of his properties and of calming the thirst; and it combines very well with different vegetables, like the carrot and the beet, a very nourishing and refreshing juice being obtained. With the apple also there are prepared alcoholic beverages, like the characteristic cider, wines and liquors, like the calvados or apple brandy, a firewater obtained by means of a double process of distillation. In Normandy it is called a half note and in the United States, applejack. The apple vinegar, it is a product derived from the very popular apple and consumed that is obtained by the acidic fermentation of the apple cider. It turns out to be a softer seasoning for the stomach that the wine vinegar, since it contains less acetic acid.






SALAD OF CABBAGE AND APPLE

4
15'
minimum


- a fresh cabbage (or average depending on the size)
- 2-3 acidic apples (of medium size)
- 3 yogures natives
- a few chive sticks
- olive oil,
- apple vinegar and salt

To sting the cabbage in thin strips. To peel the apple and trocearla in medium little cubes. To mix the cabbage and the apple and to flavor it with the vinaigrette in a salad bowl. To distribute the miscellany in small cups and salsear with the natural yogurt superficially. To decorate with a few sticks of cut chive



 
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